Tan­z­a­nia Part 5. Agen­da, Safa­ris and Poaching

Tan­z­a­nia is a popu­lar tou­rist desti­na­ti­on for safa­ris. Wild­life such as ele­phants, lions and zebras can be obser­ved or shot in the wild. In order to pro­tect the natio­nal parks sus­tain­ab­ly in the sen­se of the 2030 Agen­da, high ent­rance fees are char­ged for access. This is also inten­ded to finan­ce and moti­va­te the ran­gers [1] who are sup­po­sed to pro­tect the wild­life from poa­ching.

A num­ber of hun­ting ope­ra­tors adver­ti­se Tan­z­a­nia as a hun­ting coun­try whe­re “erst­klas­si­ge Tro­phä­en[2] („first-class tro­phies“) can be cap­tu­red. Hun­ting takes place main­ly in are­as whe­re pho­to-tou­rism is not pos­si­ble[3].

One pro­vi­der descri­bes the reasons for a cor­re­spon­ding boo­king via his site as follows:

„Michel steht nicht nur seit Jahr­zehn­ten für erst­klas­si­ge Safa­ris, per­fek­te Orga­ni­sa­ti­on und star­ke Tro­phä­en, son­dern auch für Fair Cha­se und ein hohes Enga­ge­ment für den Natur­schutz und die Jagd als sol­che in Tan­sa­nia.“[4]

Here is the translation:

„Michel has not only stood for first-class safa­ris, per­fect orga­ni­sa­ti­on and strong tro­phies for deca­des, but also for Fair Cha­se and a high com­mit­ment to con­ser­va­ti­on and hun­ting as such in Tanzania.“

In his 235-page artic­le on „Jagd­geg­ner-Behaup­tun­gen“ („hun­ting oppon­ents‘ claims“), blog­ger and hun­ter[5]  Vol­ker Woll­ny sta­tes the fol­lo­wing on this subject:

„Gleich im benach­bar­ten Tan­sa­nia gibt es die meis­ten Löwen in ganz Afri­ka. Und – oh Schreck – sie wer­den bejagt und zwar – igitt – von Jagd­rei­sen­den, die schwe­res Geld dafür bezah­len. Das Geld, wel­ches dadurch her­ein kommt, geht größ­ten­teils in den Natur­schutz. Löwen haben hier einen öko­no­mi­schen Wert, anders als in Kenia, wo sie von den Vieh­züch­tern mehr oder weni­ger als Unge­zie­fer ange­se­hen und sogar im Nai­ro­bi-Natio­nal­park ver­gif­tet wer­den. Da die Löwen hier jedoch kei­nen lega­len öko­no­mi­schen Wert haben, gibt es kei­ner­lei Schutz­maß­nah­men außer for­ma­len Gebar­me über den Schwund von Sei­ten der Regie­rung. Woher auch soll­te das Geld für einen effek­ti­ven Schutz kom­men, wenn nicht von den Jägern, die für Löwen hohen Abschuss­ge­büh­ren zu ent­rich­ten bereit sind?“[6]

Here is the translation:

“„Right in neigh­bou­ring Tan­z­a­nia the­re are the most lions in all of Afri­ca. And – oh hor­ror – they are hun­ted and that – yuck – by hun­ting tou­rists who pay hea­vy money for it. Most of the money that comes in goes to con­ser­va­ti­on. Lions have an eco­no­mic value here, unli­ke in Kenya, whe­re they are more or less con­side­red ver­min by the catt­le far­mers and are even poi­so­ned in the Nai­ro­bi Natio­nal Park. Howe­ver, sin­ce the lions have no legal eco­no­mic value here, the­re are no pro­tec­tion mea­su­res other than for­mal barbs about the deple­ti­on from the govern­ment. Whe­re would the money for effec­ti­ve pro­tec­tion come from if not from the hun­ters who are wil­ling to pay high shoo­ting fees for lions?“

Maxi­mum 21 days per species

Hun­ting tou­rism in Tan­z­a­nia is sub­ject to regu­la­ti­ons. Offi­ci­al­ly, only old ani­mals may be hun­ted. When hun­ting, tou­rists must be accom­pa­nied by a pro­fes­sio­nal wild­life ran­ger assis­ted by pro­fes­sio­nal hunters.

“Tou­rists wis­hing to con­duct hun­ting tou­rism in Tan­z­a­nia has to app­ly through hun­ting com­pa­nies for licen­se to acqui­re tro­phy.  The tou­rists are then allo­wed to bring in three rif­les of dif­fe­rent cali­bres and 200 ammu­ni­ti­ons of each calib­re which they use and the­re­af­ter return with them (ammu­ni­ti­on) to their homes of ori­gin if not used. As for the rif­les, they return home with them.  The per­mit for hun­ting a cer­tain spe­ci­es of wild­life is for 21 day after which it expi­res. The tou­rists are assis­ted by pro­fes­sio­nal hun­ters who direct them which ani­mal to shoot down as they are not allo­wed to shoot any ani­mal as some might be pregnant.”[7]

The­re is a wide­spread cla­im that after tro­phy hun­ting, hun­ters sim­ply lea­ve the car­cas­ses of the kil­led ani­mals lying around. In fact, this is not allo­wed and is more in line with the prac­ti­ce of poachers.

Can­ned Hun­ting of bree­ding animals

Accor­ding to a hun­ter, it is com­mon for hun­ting tou­rists to be gui­ded in such a way that they get the impres­si­on that they are real­ly track­ing down the ani­mals in the wild and then hun­ting them down. In rea­li­ty, howe­ver, the hun­ting often takes place insi­de huge fen­ces (can­ned hun­ting), which Euro­peans and Ame­ri­cans usual­ly do not noti­ce. An artic­le from 2015 descri­bes this as follows:

“Die Mehr­heit der Tie­re wird dort gezielt dafür gezüch­tet und dem zah­len­den Kun­den (Prei­se: von 10.000 US-Dol­lar auf­wärts) in ein­ge­zäun­ten Gehe­gen über­las­sen – Stich­wort Gat­ter­jagd. Die Zahl der wild leben­den getö­te­ten Löwen liegt bei über 500 pro Jahr in Afri­ka.“[8]

Here is the translation:

“The majo­ri­ty of the ani­mals are bred the­re spe­ci­fi­cal­ly for this pur­po­se and left to the pay­ing cus­to­mer (pri­ces: from 10,000 US dol­lars upwards) in fen­ced enclo­sures – key­word: can­ned hun­ting. The num­ber of lions kil­led in the wild is over 500 per year in Africa.”

Anyo­ne who belie­ves that the type of lion hun­ting descri­bed here pro­tects the wild ani­mal popu­la­ti­on and that it is an „honest“ tri­al of strength bet­ween pre­da­tor and hun­ter is wrong:

“Löwen wer­den in gro­ßem Stil auf Far­men, vor allem in Süd­afri­ka, gezüch­tet, mit der Hand auf­ge­zo­gen und in Gehe­gen ein­ge­sperrt. Als Jung­tie­re müs­sen sie als Strei­chel­at­trak­ti­on her­hal­ten. Haben sie erst eine statt­li­che Grö­ße erreicht, wer­den sie zum Abschuss an Jagd­tou­ris­ten aus rei­chen Län­dern frei­ge­ge­ben. Die­se kön­nen oft schlecht schie­ßen. So ster­ben die zah­men Löwen, die nie gesun­de Scheu vor Men­schen ent­wi­ckelt haben, lang­sam und qual­voll und enden als Tro­phäe. Dem Argu­ment der Jagd­lob­by, die Löwen­zucht die­ne der Art­erhal­tung frei­le­ben­der Löwen, wider­spre­chen Arten­schüt­zer vehe­ment. Das Gegen­teil sei der Fall, da die Zahl der Can­ned-Hun­ting-Far­men stets zunimmt und für die wach­sen­de Nach­fra­ge immer wie­der frei­le­ben­de Löwen ein­ge­fan­gen wer­den, um wei­te­ren Nach­schub für die Gat­ter­jagd sicher­zu­stel­len.“[9]

Here is the translation:

„Lions are bred on a lar­ge sca­le on farms, espe­ci­al­ly in South Afri­ca, rai­sed by hand and locked up in enclo­sures. As cubs, they have to ser­ve as a pet­ting attrac­tion. Once they have rea­ched a respec­ta­ble size, they are released for shoo­ting to hun­ting tou­rists from rich count­ries. The­se tou­rists are often bad shots. Thus the tame lions, which have never deve­lo­ped a healt­hy shy­ness towards humans, die slow­ly and pain­ful­ly and end up as tro­phies. Cam­pai­gner for the pro­tec­tion of end­an­ge­red spe­ci­es vehe­men­t­ly con­tra­dict the hun­ting lobby’s argu­ment that lion bree­ding ser­ves to pre­ser­ve the spe­ci­es of lions living in the wild. The oppo­si­te is the case, they say, as the num­ber of can­ned hun­ting farms is con­stant­ly incre­asing and free-ran­ging lions are cap­tu­red again and again to meet the gro­wing demand and to ensu­re fur­ther sup­pli­es for gate hunting.“

Not all legal­ly shot ani­mals can be exported

The ext­ent to which hun­ting trips in Tan­z­a­nia always take place in the spi­rit of natu­re con­ser­va­ti­on should at least be ques­tio­ned. For exam­p­le, the tour ope­ra­tor „Pro­fi-Jagd­rei­sen“ wri­tes the fol­lo­wing on its website:

In Tan­sa­nia kön­nen Wild­ar­ten legal erlegt wer­den, die dem Anhang I des Washing­to­ner Arten­schutz­ab­kom­mens unter­lie­gen und somit nicht nach Deutsch­land ein­ge­führt wer­den dür­fen.“[10]

Here is the translation:

„In Tan­z­a­nia, game spe­ci­es can be legal­ly shot that are sub­ject to Appen­dix I of the Washing­ton Con­ven­ti­on and thus may not be impor­ted into Germany.“

CITES almost valid everywhere

The Con­ven­ti­on on Inter­na­tio­nal Trade in End­an­ge­red Spe­ci­es of Wild Fau­na and Flo­ra (CITES) was estab­lished in 1973. It was last updated on 22.06.2021[11].

In 2021, it (the agree­ment) was valid in a total of 184 count­ries. In Ger­ma­ny, the Con­ven­ti­on has been in force sin­ce 1976, in Tan­z­a­nia it first came into force on 27 Febru­ary 1980[12]. The list of ani­mal and plant spe­ci­es defi­ned as par­ti­cu­lar­ly end­an­ge­red is usual­ly updated every two to three years by the mem­ber sta­tes[13].

CITES pur­sues Agen­da goals

CITES is lin­ked to the Sus­tainable Deve­lo­p­ment Goals of Agen­da 21[14], [15], which has sin­ce been super­se­ded by Agen­da 2030[16].Tan­z­a­nia has also com­mit­ted its­elf to sup­port­ing the goals of the 2030 Agen­da[17]. The­se goals include pover­ty alle­via­ti­on, pro­tec­tion of life under water and on land, sus­tainable cities, but also gen­der equa­li­ty and qua­li­ty edu­ca­ti­on[18]. Among the core goals that Tan­z­a­nia is pur­suing in terms of the Agen­da is also „fami­ly plan­ning“, which can be unders­tood as a euphe­mism for „popu­la­ti­on reduc­tion“:

„Direct­ly, con­tracep­ti­on redu­ces the risk of mate­r­nal and new­born mor­ta­li­ty by decre­asing expo­sure to pregnan­cy and high-risk births. Increased con­tracep­ti­ve use also redu­ces total fer­ti­li­ty at the coun­try-level, which favor­ab­ly shapes popu­la­ti­on dyna­mics. The­se popu­la­ti­on dyna­mics faci­li­ta­te eco­no­mic growth and pro­spe­ri­ty, human capi­tal deve­lo­p­ment, food secu­ri­ty and agri­cul­tu­re pro­duc­tion, the avai­la­bi­li­ty and impro­ved qua­li­ty of social ser­vices, and much more.“[19]

Cor­rupt­ed by wild­life trade?

Regar­ding „Goal 15″, life on land, among other things, the fol­lo­wing is stated:

While 15 per­cent of land is pro­tec­ted, bio­di­ver­si­ty is still at risk. Near­ly 7,000 spe­ci­es of ani­mals and plants have been ille­gal­ly traded. Wild­life traf­fi­cking not only ero­des bio­di­ver­si­ty, but crea­tes inse­cu­ri­ty, fuels con­flict, and feeds corruption.

Urgent action must be taken to redu­ce the loss of natu­ral habi­tats and bio­di­ver­si­ty which are part of our com­mon heri­ta­ge and sup­port glo­bal food and water secu­ri­ty, cli­ma­te chan­ge miti­ga­ti­on and adapt­a­ti­on, and peace and secu­ri­ty.“[20]

An assess­ment by Eileen DeRolf on Agen­da 21 fits this:

„Umwelt­schüt­zer, die sich für gefähr­de­te Arten ein­set­zen, nut­zen Boden­treu­hand­stif­tun­gen, um Vor­schrif­ten für den Schutz von Wild­tie­ren und die Aus­wei­tung von Lebens­räu­men zu ver­wal­ten und durch­zu­set­zen.“[21]

Here is the translation:

„Envi­ron­men­ta­lists working for end­an­ge­red spe­ci­es use land trusts to mana­ge and enforce regu­la­ti­ons for wild­life pro­tec­tion and habi­tat expansion.“

The less obvious goals actual­ly pur­sued by Agen­da 21 / Agen­da 2030 were pre­sen­ted in more detail in ano­ther artic­le.

Tanzania’s Sus­tainable Agen­da 2030 and poaching

Hun­ting in Tan­z­a­nia does not always take place in a legal way. Many peo­p­le in Tan­z­a­nia are very poor. Poa­ching can the­r­e­fo­re be a wel­co­me extra income:

„The results of the pre­sent stu­dy con­firm the link bet­ween pover­ty and poa­ching, but they also reve­al that many vil­la­gers har­ve­st bush­me­at to sup­ple­ment their inco­me and are not among the poo­rest of the poor, as is often assu­med. More important­ly, the stu­dy reve­als that how poa­chers view their finan­cial sta­tus rela­ti­ve to other vil­la­gers is a pri­ma­ry influence on poa­ching habits.“[22]

The decisi­ve fac­tor was the­r­e­fo­re not only abso­lu­te pover­ty, but also com­pa­ra­ti­ve pover­ty to the neighbours.

Poa­chers inter­view­ed for the stu­dy admit­ted to hun­ting impa­la, giraf­fe and warthog, among others. As hun­ting wea­pons they would main­ly use guns, wire sna­res and poi­son arrows[23]. In an ear­lier report it was men­tio­ned that lions were often poi­so­ned and caught with long-line sna­res[24].

Poa­ching is a sad reality

That poa­ching is a fun­da­men­tal pro­blem in Tan­z­a­nia is appro­pria­te­ly hin­ted at by a tour operator:

„Vie­le Jäger und Foto­tou­ris­ten zieht es Jahr für Jahr in den Selous Natio­nal­park, Afrika´s größ­tes Wild­re­ser­vat, benannt nach Fre­de­rik Court­ney Selous. Lei­der, lei­der hat dort die Wil­de­rei über­hand­ge­nom­men und es ist nur eine Fra­ge der Zeit, wenn dort, ähn­lich wie in Kenia, die Wild­be­stän­de nach­hal­tig geschä­digt wer­den. Die staat­li­che Kon­trol­le ver­sagt groß­flä­chig. Das Gros der Jagd­rei­se­ver­an­stal­ter tum­melt sich im Selous, doch durch das Ver­bot der Ein­fuhr von Elfen­bein und Löwen­tro­phä­en in die USA wird es für vie­le Out­fit­ter schwie­rig, den Safa­ri­be­trieb auf­recht­zu­er­hal­ten.“[25]

Here is the translation:

„Many hun­ters and pho­to tou­rists are drawn year after year to the Selous Natio­nal Park, Africa’s lar­gest wild­life reser­ve, named after Fre­de­rik Court­ney Selous. Unfort­u­na­te­ly, poa­ching has beco­me ram­pant the­re and it is only a mat­ter of time when, simi­lar to Kenya, the game popu­la­ti­ons the­re will be per­ma­nent­ly dama­ged. Sta­te con­trol is fai­ling on a lar­ge sca­le. The bulk of hun­ting tour ope­ra­tors ply their trade in the Selous, but the ban on import­ing ivo­ry and lion tro­phies into the US makes it dif­fi­cult for many out­fit­ters to main­tain safa­ri operations.“

The jour­na­list Fati­ma Majed points out in an artic­le that Tan­z­a­nia is said to have had the hig­hest ele­phant kil­ling rate from 1998 to 2014. The cor­re­spon­ding popu­la­ti­on had decli­ned by over 60 %[26].

Alre­a­dy in 2017, it was war­ned that ele­phants could be extinct in Tan­z­a­nia by 2022[27].

In the mean­ti­me, the govern­ment has adopted a strict „zero poa­ching“ poli­cy. Majed reports that in just five years, more than 2,300 poa­chers and traf­fi­ckers have been arres­ted, inclu­ding 21 so-cal­led „king­pins[28] who could be descri­bed as the heads of orga­nis­ed poaching.

Poa­ching con­ti­nues despi­te zero poa­ching policy

Among the suc­ces­ses of the anti-poa­ching cam­paign, the fol­lo­wing is stated:

„Neben den 14.000 Stück beschlag­nahm­ten Elfen­beins, fand die Taskforce in fünf Jah­ren auch 25 Nas­horn-Hör­ner, 29 Nil­pferd-Zäh­ne, 29 Groß­kat­zen-Fel­le, hun­der­te von leben­den Tie­ren und tau­sen­de Ton­nen Holz.“ [29]

Here is the translation:

„In addi­ti­on to the 14,000 pie­ces of ivo­ry sei­zed, the taskforce also found 25 rhi­no horns, 29 hip­po tee­th, 29 big cat skins, hundreds of live ani­mals and thou­sands of ton­nes of tim­ber over five years.“ 

In 2021, the World Wild­life Fund (WWF) repor­ted num­e­rous recent cases of poa­ching in Tan­z­a­nia. Among other things, tusks and the meat of eland were sei­zed. Giraf­fes are par­ti­cu­lar­ly affec­ted by poa­ching[30].

Long pri­son sen­ten­ces a rea­li­ty for caught poachers

Anyo­ne caught poa­ching in Tan­z­a­nia faces harsh pen­al­ties. For exam­p­le, Tanzania’s most noto­rious poa­cher, Boni­face Matthew Mali­ango ali­as „She­ta­ni“ (Kis­wa­hi­li: devil), was sen­ten­ced to 12 years in pri­son in 2017. He was accu­sed of kil­ling seve­ral thousand ele­phants[31].

In 2019, the Chi­ne­se poa­cher Yang Fen­glan was sen­ten­ced to 15 years in pri­son. Within 14 years, he had smug­g­led a total of 860 tusks out of the coun­try. Yang was pro­ba­b­ly also con­nec­ted to She­ta­ni[32].

In 2020, the three poa­chers Kul­wa Subi­la, ali­as Nge­le­ja, Charles Makun­ga, ali­as Juman­ne and Juman­ne Kwan­gu­li­ja, ali­as Shi­ja Masan­ja were each sen­ten­ced to 40 years in pri­son. Sin­ce they were sen­ten­ced to 20 years each for par­al­lel offen­ces, their respec­ti­ve impri­son­ment thus ends after the first twen­ty years[33].

Reduc­tion by 90%. All poa­chers guilty?

The first major suc­ces­ses in the fight against poa­ching were recor­ded in Tan­z­a­nia in 2015 and 2016, when a total of 1,563 poa­chers were appre­hen­ded[34]. Bet­ween 2016 and 2021, a total of 33,386 poa­chers were arres­ted. At the same time, the num­ber of poa­chers was redu­ced by 90 % in the­se five years[35]. Accor­ding to the local news­pa­per „Mwa­nan­chi“ of 07.06.2022 (p. 20), only 105 poa­ching inci­dents were pro­se­cu­ted from 2017 to 2022. Around 90 % of the­se rela­ted to the ille­gal hun­ting of ele­phants.  Of the afo­re­men­tio­ned inci­dents, 52% of the poa­chers had been found guil­ty, 22% were awai­ting tri­al and 26% had been caught in the act.

Spe­ci­fic infor­ma­ti­on on recent inci­dents can be found in detail at https://​wil​deye​-east​-afri​ca​.oxpe​ckers​.org.

It is unclear how often inno­cent peo­p­le are fal­se­ly accu­sed of poa­ching. Howe­ver, indi­vi­du­al reports, for exam­p­le from 2013, show that fal­se sus­pi­ci­ons do occur and that human rights are not neces­s­a­ri­ly respec­ted by the ran­gers[36].

Covid-19 as a tur­bo for poachers

How sus­tainable the fight against poa­ching will be remains to be seen. Howe­ver, con­cre­te suc­ces­ses are alre­a­dy visi­ble. For exam­p­le, the num­ber of ele­phants had risen from 43,330 in 2014 to around 60,000 in 2019[37].

An artic­le from August 2021, for exam­p­le, speaks of an Afri­ca-wide increase in poa­ching during the „Covid 19 pan­de­mic“:

The Inter­na­tio­nal Jour­nal of Pro­tec­ted Are­as and Con­ser­va­ti­on found that 78.5% of sur­vey­ed Afri­can count­ries repor­ted that COVID-19 had impac­ted their abili­ty to moni­tor the ille­gal wild­life trade, and 53 per­cent repor­ted a high level of impact from COVID-19 on the abili­ty to miti­ga­te human-wild­life con­flict.“[38]

Even though Tan­z­a­nia was hard­ly affec­ted by pan­de­mic mea­su­res under the for­mer pre­si­dent, Dr John Pom­be Mag­ufu­li, the cri­sis nevert­hel­ess led to a signi­fi­cant decli­ne in the num­ber of tou­rists in the country.

Con­tro­ver­si­al cen­sor­ship bill withdrawn

A report from 2015 cri­ti­cis­ed a draft law by the then Tan­z­a­ni­an govern­ment under Dr Magufuli:

„Neue Geset­ze wür­den es Umwelt­schüt­zern erschwe­ren, kri­ti­sche Infor­ma­tio­nen zu ver­öf­fent­li­chen. Es soll zukünf­tig ille­gal sein, Daten zu ver­brei­ten, die den Zah­len des Amts für Sta­tis­tik wider­spre­chen. Außer­dem sol­len im Inter­net kei­ne Infor­ma­tio­nen ver­brei­tet wer­den dür­fen, die von der Regie­rung als „trü­ge­risch, irre­füh­rend oder feh­ler­haft“ ein­ge­stuft wer­den. Sogar der Emp­fang sol­cher Daten soll zukünf­tig kri­mi­nell sein.

Weil Umwelt­schüt­zer sozia­le Medi­en stark nut­zen, um Aktio­nen gegen Wil­de­rei und Elfen­bein-Han­del zu orga­ni­sie­ren, könn­te die Regie­rung die Arbeit von Akti­vis­ten unter­bin­den und sogar Gefäng­nis­stra­fen ver­hän­gen.“[39]

Here is the translation:

„New laws would make it more dif­fi­cult for envi­ron­men­ta­lists to publish cri­ti­cal infor­ma­ti­on. In future, it shall be ille­gal to dis­se­mi­na­te data that con­tra­dict the figu­res of the Office of Sta­tis­tics. In addi­ti­on, it will not be allo­wed to dis­se­mi­na­te infor­ma­ti­on on the inter­net that is clas­si­fied by the govern­ment as „decep­ti­ve, mis­lea­ding or erro­n­eous“. Even the receipt of such data is to be cri­mi­na­li­sed in future.

Becau­se envi­ron­men­ta­lists make hea­vy use of social media to orga­ni­se actions against poa­ching and the ivo­ry trade, the govern­ment could stop the work of acti­vists and even impo­se pri­son sentences.“

Due to public pres­su­re, the Cha­ma Cha Mapin­du­zi Par­ty (CCM), which is still in power today, pushed for the with­dra­wal of the hea­vi­ly cri­ti­cis­ed law[40].  Accor­ding to the 2015 annu­al report of „Twa­we­za ni sisi“, the con­tro­ver­si­al „Access to Infor­ma­ti­on and Media Ser­vices Bills“ was final­ly with­drawn[41].

Hun­ting trips as an eco­no­mic factor

Tho­se who embark on a hun­ting trip to Tan­z­a­nia have to take into account not only the cos­ts for the flight, tra­vel health insu­rance, a high-capa­ci­ty hun­ting lia­bi­li­ty insu­rance with world­wi­de vali­di­ty, shoo­ting fees for the desi­red tro­phy, but also various addi­tio­nal cos­ts. The­se include the cos­ts for a hun­ting licence, a game pro­tec­tion levy, cos­ts for a pre-pre­pa­ra­ti­on of the cap­tu­red tro­phies, the tro­phy export tax, the fees for a wea­pons import per­mit, con­ces­si­on fees as well as a hun­ting block fee.

https://​www​.wfs​-rating​.de/​j​a​g​d​h​a​f​t​p​f​l​i​c​h​t​v​e​r​s​i​c​h​e​r​ung

Claims prac­ti­ce Hun­ting accidents

The Ger­man INTER Ver­si­che­rungs­grup­pe (INTER Insu­rance Group) reports on a cla­im in Namibia:

„Unser Kun­de war auf einer Jagd­rei­se in Nami­bia und gemein­sam mit einem in Nami­bia leben­den deut­schen Jagd­füh­rer mit gela­de­nem Gewehr auf der Pirsch. Durch ein Ver­se­hen unse­res Kun­den lös­te sich ein Schuss, wel­cher den Jagd­füh­rer von hin­ten durch die Brust traf und schwer ver­letz­te. Zwar konn­ten wir dem Jagd­füh­rer kei­ne direk­te Hil­fe zur Gene­sung zukom­men las­sen, leis­te­ten aber 40.000 EUR für Behand­lungs­kos­ten, Schmer­zens­geld und Verdienstausfall.

Die Kom­mu­ni­ka­ti­on mit dem Geschä­dig­ten war durch die gro­ße Ent­fer­nung erschwert. Die Klä­rung der Ansprü­che nach nami­bi­schen Recht war her­aus­for­dernd. Den­noch konn­te der Scha­den zügig zur Zufrie­den­heit aller Betei­lig­ten regu­liert werden.“

Here is the translation:

„Our cli­ent was on a hun­ting trip in Nami­bia and was stal­king with a loa­ded rif­le tog­e­ther with a Ger­man hun­ting gui­de living in Nami­bia. Due to an acci­dent on the part of our cli­ent, a shot was fired which hit the hun­ting gui­de from behind through the chest and serious­ly inju­red him. Alt­hough we were unable to pro­vi­de the hun­ting gui­de with direct help to reco­ver, we paid EUR 40,000 for tre­at­ment cos­ts, com­pen­sa­ti­on for pain and suf­fe­ring and loss of earnings.

Com­mu­ni­ca­ti­on with the inju­red par­ty was dif­fi­cult due to the long distance. Cla­ri­fy­ing claims under Nami­bi­an law was chal­len­ging. Nevert­hel­ess, the dama­ge was sett­led swift­ly to the satis­fac­tion of all par­ties involved.“

For this reason, when choo­sing a sui­ta­ble hun­ting lia­bi­li­ty insu­rance poli­cy, prio­ri­ty should be given to high-per­for­mance con­di­ti­ons and not to a pos­si­ble saving of a few euros per year.

Shoo­ting fees up to 30,000 USD

Accor­ding to one hun­ting ope­ra­tor, the cost of shoo­ting a python is 350 USD, a zebra 1,600 USD, a cro­co­di­le 3,200 USD, a buf­fa­lo 3,500 USD, a leo­pard 7,900 USD, a lion 12,000 USD or an ele­phant bet­ween 18,000 and 30,000 USD. The abo­ve-men­tio­ned cos­ts are then added to the­se shoo­ting cos­ts, so that 21 hun­ting days for an ele­phant cost an addi­tio­nal USD 57,200, and 12 hun­ting days for a leo­pard still cost USD 30,050[42].

Sin­ce it is appar­ent­ly not only the hun­ting indus­try that ear­ns well from such hunts for ani­mal tro­phies, it is easy, for exam­p­le, to look at the expul­si­on of the Maa­sai from their ances­tral home­land in the Ngo­ron­go­ro Natio­nal Park[43] from a dif­fe­rent ang­le. Is this pos­si­bly about the imple­men­ta­ti­on of the 2030 Agenda?

Live bul­lets fired at peace-loving Maasai

A few days ago, on 08.06.2022, a Maa­sai vil­la­ge in Loliondo, which belongs to the Ngo­ron­go­ro Dis­trict, was the sce­ne of an outra­ge. A who­le fleet of poli­ce and mili­ta­ry vehic­les had come to evict the vil­la­gers from their legal ances­tral ter­ri­to­ry[44], [45]. The inten­ti­on is to crea­te a game reser­ve for the roy­al fami­ly of the United Arab Emi­ra­tes (UAE) [46].

At first, tear gas was used[47], then live ammu­ni­ti­on was fired[48], [49].

The shots were aimed at the feet, the back or once even the head. At least ten peo­p­le were woun­ded, inclu­ding a 70-year-old man[50]. Many Maa­sai were arres­ted as a result of the events[51].

„Tan­z­a­ni­an poli­ce and game war­dens arri­ved in the area on Tues­day to demar­ca­te a 1,500 squa­re kilo­me­t­res of “vil­la­ge land” as a game reser­ve for tro­phy hun­ting, he said.

The move would ban all human sett­le­ments and gra­zing in the area, effec­tively evic­ting semi-pas­to­ra­list Maa­sai com­mu­ni­ties.“[52]

In one of the con­tri­bu­ti­ons to the inci­dent, it is poin­ted out that the only per­ma­nent source of water would be in this very area.  In order to sur­vi­ve peri­ods of drought, this is essen­ti­al for sur­vi­val in order to be able to con­ti­nue this noma­dic type of catt­le far­ming at all. Against this back­ground, mas­si­ve resis­tance from the Maa­sai against such mea­su­res[53]  is not surprising.

Spe­ci­es pro­tec­tion: kil­ling of rare animals?

Other back­ground infor­ma­ti­on on the events repor­ted by the Oak­land Insti­tu­te, a think tank based in the USA, is also problematic:

„Accor­ding to Oak­land, the UAE-based Ott­erlo Busi­ness Com­pa­ny — which runs hun­ting excur­si­ons for the country’s roy­al fami­ly and their guests — will repor­ted­ly con­trol com­mer­cial hun­ting in the area despi­te the company’s past invol­vement in seve­ral vio­lent evic­tions of the Maa­sai, bur­ning of homes and the kil­ling of thou­sands of rare ani­mals in the area.“[54]

One repor­ter men­ti­ons that some of the Maa­sai living here today were evic­ted from the Seren­ge­ti Natio­nal Park as ear­ly as 1959. He also adds that an East Afri­can Court of Jus­ti­ce (EACJ) order of 2018 is being kno­wing­ly vio­la­ted under the pre­text of envi­ron­men­tal pro­tec­tion[55].

The roy­al tour of a president

Such events are cer­tain­ly not con­du­ci­ve to tou­rism. Under­stan­d­a­b­ly, Tanzania’s new pre­si­dent, Samia Sulu­hu Hassan, is cour­ting tou­rists to visit the coun­try. To this end, „The Roy­al Tour“ was con­duc­ted through many cities in Tan­z­a­nia from the end of 2021 until Febru­ary 2022. The­se cities included Dar es Salaam[56], Zan­zi­bar, but also Kili­man­ja­ro[57]  near the city of Aru­sha, a cen­tral start­ing point for many safa­ris in the coun­try[58]. On 28 April 2022, the film of the Ame­ri­can jour­na­list Peter Green­berg[59], [60].  about his trip with the Tan­z­a­ni­an Pre­si­dent was published. Alre­a­dy in Decem­ber, a very impres­si­ve trai­ler was shown, which impres­si­ve­ly pre­sen­ted the beau­ties of the coun­try for tou­rism[61].

The pre­vious parts of the series at a glance:

Part 1: A »bull­do­zer« with few sym­pa­thies in the West

https://​cri​ti​cal​-news​.de/​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​_​1​_​e​n​g​l​i​sh/ bzw. https://t.me/critical_news_de/850

Topics include PCR tests, free­dom of the press

Part 2: Did Mag­ufu­li want to lea­ve WHO?

https://​cri​ti​cal​-news​.de/​t​a​n​s​a​n​i​a​-​2​_​e​n​g​l​i​sh/ bzw. https://t.me/critical_news_de/860

Topics include Gates-Foun­da­ti­on, oppo­si­ti­on to the WHO

Part 3: Mama Samia and the World Eco­no­mic Forum

https://​cri​ti​cal​-news​.de/​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​_3/ bzw. https://t.me/critical_news_de/864

Topics include World Eco­no­mic Forum, Agen­da 21 / Agen­da 2030, sustainability

Part 4: The vac­ci­na­ti­on cam­paign in Tan­z­a­nia under Magufuli’s heirs

https://​cri​ti​cal​-news​.de/​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​_4/  bzw. https://t.me/critical_news_de/868

Topics include vac­ci­ne safe­ty, medi­cal edu­ca­ti­on, case sur­veil­lan­ce, adver­se side effects


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[16] Eileen DeRolf and Jan van Hel­sing „Wir töten die hal­be Mensch­heit  — und es wird schnell gehen! Der Plan der Éli­te, »min­der­wer­ti­ge Völ­ker« über Krank­hei­ten und Seu­chen los­zu­wer­den. Der Rest erlebt die grün-sozia­lis­ti­sche Neue Welt­ord­nung!“ Fich­ten­au (ama­de­us), 6th edi­ti­on, 2022, p. 59: „2015: Am 27. Sep­tem­ber ver­ab­schie­det Prä­si­dent Oba­ma die Agen­da 2030 für Nach­hal­ti­ge Ent­wick­lung, die von nun an die Agen­da 21 für die nächs­ten 15 Jah­re ablö­sen wird und den wei­te­ren Weg bei der Umset­zung ihrer Zie­le dik­tiert.“ Here is the trans­la­ti­on: “2015: On 27 Sep­tem­ber, Pre­si­dent Oba­ma adopts the 2030 Agen­da for Sus­tainable Deve­lo­p­ment, which will from now on replace Agen­da 21 for the next 15 years and dic­ta­te the way for­ward in imple­men­ting its goals.”

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[30] Noah Sita­ti „Incre­asing cases of poa­ching and IWT in Tan­z­a­nia Remains a major thre­at to wild­life” on„wwf.or.tz” from 14.03.2022. Available at https://​www​.wwf​.or​.tz/​?​3​8​7​0​3​/​I​n​c​r​e​a​s​i​n​g​-​c​a​s​e​s​-​o​f​-​p​o​a​c​h​i​n​g​-​a​n​d​-​I​W​T​-​i​n​-​T​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​-​R​e​m​a​i​n​s​-​a​-​m​a​j​o​r​-​t​h​r​e​a​t​-​t​o​-​w​i​l​d​l​ife, last acces­sed on 05.06.2022.

[31] „Tan­z­a­nia jails noto­rious ele­phant poa­cher“ on „bbc​.com“ from 03.03.2017. Available at https://​www​.bbc​.com/​n​e​w​s​/​w​o​r​l​d​-​a​f​r​i​c​a​-​3​9​1​5​7​783, last acces­sed on 05.06.2022.

[32] „Tanzania’s Court Sen­ten­ces Chi­ne­se Natio­nal Char­ged with „Ivo­ry Traf­fi­cking to 15 Years in Pri­son” on „pan​da​.org” from 20.02.2019. Available at https://​wwf​.pan​da​.org/​w​w​f​_​n​e​w​s​/​?​3​4​3​4​3​0​/​T​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​s​-​C​o​u​r​t​-​S​e​n​t​e​n​c​e​s​-​C​h​i​n​e​s​e​-​N​a​t​i​o​n​a​l​-​C​h​a​r​g​e​d​-​w​i​t​h​-​I​v​o​r​y​-​T​r​a​f​f​i​c​k​i​n​g​-​t​o​-​1​5​-​Y​e​a​r​s​-​i​n​-​P​r​i​son, last acces­sed on 05.06.2022.

[33] „Three poa­chers slap­ped with 40 yr-jail term each (Tan­z­a­nia)” on „afri​ca​nele​phant​jour​nal​.com” from 08.04.2020. Available at https://​afri​ca​nele​phant​jour​nal​.com/​t​h​r​e​e​-​p​o​a​c​h​e​r​s​-​s​l​a​p​p​e​d​-​w​i​t​h​-​4​0​-​y​r​-​j​a​i​l​-​t​e​r​m​-​e​a​c​h​-​t​a​n​z​a​n​ia/, last acces­sed on 05.06.2022.

[34] See e. g. „Tan­z­a­nia Wild­life Manage­ment Aut­ho­ri­ty. Mam­la­ka ya usi­ma­mi­zi wa wan­ya­ma­po­ri“ on „tawa​.go​.tz“. Available at https://​www​.tawa​.go​.tz/​c​o​n​s​e​r​v​a​t​i​o​n​/​w​i​l​d​l​i​f​e​-​p​r​o​t​e​c​t​i​on/, last acces­sed on 12.06.2022.

[35] „Tan­z­a­nia: More Than 33,380 Poa­chers Arres­ted in Past 5 Years” on „allaf​ri​ca​.com” from 09.06.2021. Available at https://​allaf​ri​ca​.com/​s​t​o​r​i​e​s​/​2​0​2​1​0​6​0​9​0​7​7​1​.​h​tml, last acces­sed on 12.06.2022.

[36] See e. g. Court­ney Brooks und Mar­cel­le Hop­kins „How Pro­tec­ting Ani­mals Led to Alle­ga­ti­ons of Tor­tu­re and Rape” on „natio​nal​geo​gra​phic​.com” from 19.09.2016. Available at https://​www​.natio​nal​geo​gra​phic​.com/​a​n​i​m​a​l​s​/​a​r​t​i​c​l​e​/​w​i​l​d​l​i​f​e​-​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​-​p​o​a​c​h​i​n​g​-​h​u​m​a​n​-​r​i​g​h​t​s​-​a​b​u​ses, last acces­sed on 06.06.2022.

[37] Fum­bu­ka Ng’wanakilala „Tan­z­a­nia says ele­phant, rhi­no popu­la­ti­ons reboun­ding after anti-poa­ching crack­down“ on „reu​ters​.com“ from 10.07.2019 at 3:37 p.m.. Available at https://​www​.reu​ters​.com/​a​r​t​i​c​l​e​/​u​s​-​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​-​w​i​l​d​l​i​f​e​-​i​d​I​N​K​C​N​1​U​5​1NU, last acces­sed on 12.06.2022.

[38] Apo­li­na­ri Tai­ro „Afri­can ran­gers fight poa­ching under plight of COVID-19 pan­de­mic” on „etur​bo​news​.com” from 14.08.2021. Available at https://​etur​bo​news​.com/​a​f​r​i​c​a​n​-​r​a​n​g​e​r​s​-​f​i​g​h​t​-​p​o​a​c​h​i​n​g​-​u​n​d​e​r​-​p​l​i​g​h​t​-​o​f​-​c​o​v​i​d​-​1​9​-​p​a​n​d​e​m​ic/, last acces­sed on 06.06.2022.

[39] „Been­de­te Peti­ti­on. Staats­ge­heim­nis Wil­de­rei – Tan­sa­nia zen­siert Umwelt­schüt­zer“ on „regen​wald​.org“. Available at https://​www​.regen​wald​.org/​p​e​t​i​t​i​o​n​e​n​/​9​9​7​/​s​t​a​a​t​s​g​e​h​e​i​m​n​i​s​-​w​i​l​d​e​r​e​i​-​t​a​n​s​a​n​i​a​-​z​e​n​s​i​e​r​t​-​u​m​w​e​l​t​s​c​h​u​e​t​z​e​r​#​m​ore, last acces­sed on 05.06.2022.

[40] Pius Rugon­zib­wa „Tan­z­a­nia: CCM Calls for With­dra­wal of Dra­co­ni­an Media“ on „allaf​ri​ca​.com“ from 25.06.2015. Available at https://​allaf​ri​ca​.com/​s​t​o​r​i​e​s​/​2​0​1​5​0​6​2​5​0​2​8​5​.​h​tml, last acces­sed on 05.06.2022.

[41] „Annu­al Report 2015“ on „twa​we​za​.aymzz​.com“, p. 21. Available at https://​twa​we​za​.aymzz​.com/​r​e​s​o​u​r​c​e​s​/​T​w​a​w​e​z​a​-​A​n​n​u​a​l​-​R​e​p​o​r​t​-​2​0​1​5​-​F​I​N​A​L​.​pdf, last acces­sed on 05.06.2022.

[42] „Tan­sa­nia. Wild­reich­tum im Her­zen des Schwar­zen Kon­ti­nents!“ on „pro​fi​jagd​rei​sen​.de“. Available at http://​pro​fi​jagd​rei​sen​.de/​w​p​-​c​o​n​t​e​n​t​/​u​p​l​o​a​d​s​/​2​0​1​5​/​0​5​/​T​a​n​s​a​n​i​a​.​pdf, last acces­sed on 05.06.2022.

[43] „Tan­z­a­nia Maa­sai torn over pos­si­ble evic­tion from Ngo­ron­go­ro reser­ve“ on „fran​ce24​.com“ from 18.03.2022 at 09:12 a. m.. Available at https://​www​.fran​ce24​.com/​e​n​/​l​i​v​e​-​n​e​w​s​/​2​0​2​2​0​3​1​8​-​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​-​m​a​a​s​a​i​-​t​o​r​n​-​o​v​e​r​-​p​o​s​s​i​b​l​e​-​e​v​i​c​t​i​o​n​-​f​r​o​m​-​n​g​o​r​o​n​g​o​r​o​-​r​e​s​e​rve, last acces­sed on 12.05.2022.

[44] Chris Lang „Evic­ting the Maa­sai for “con­ser­va­ti­on” and tro­phy hun­ting in Loliondo, Tan­z­a­nia. Dozens of Maa­sai have been inju­red by gun shots” on „redd​-moni​tor​.org” from 10.06.2022. Available at https://​redd​-moni​tor​.org/​2​0​2​2​/​0​6​/​1​0​/​e​v​i​c​t​i​n​g​-​t​h​e​-​m​a​a​s​a​i​-​f​o​r​-​c​o​n​s​e​r​v​a​t​i​o​n​-​a​n​d​-​t​r​o​p​h​y​-​h​u​n​t​i​n​g​-​i​n​-​l​o​l​i​o​n​d​o​-​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​-​d​o​z​e​n​s​-​o​f​-​m​a​a​s​a​i​-​h​a​v​e​-​b​e​e​n​-​i​n​j​u​r​e​d​-​b​y​-​g​u​n​-​s​h​o​ts/, last acces­sed on 10.06.2022.

[45] Rajat Ghai „Fort­ress Con­ser­va­ti­on: Ten­si­on in Tanzania’s Loliondo as tro­ops move in to evict Maa­sai to make way for game reser­ve” on „down​toe​arth​.org” from 10.06.2022. Available at https://​www​.down​toe​arth​.org​.in/​n​e​w​s​/​a​f​r​i​c​a​/​f​o​r​t​r​e​s​s​-​c​o​n​s​e​r​v​a​t​i​o​n​-​t​e​n​s​i​o​n​-​i​n​-​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​-​s​-​l​o​l​i​o​n​d​o​-​a​s​-​t​r​o​o​p​s​-​m​o​v​e​-​i​n​-​t​o​-​e​v​i​c​t​-​m​a​a​s​a​i​-​t​o​-​m​a​k​e​-​w​a​y​-​f​o​r​-​g​a​m​e​-​r​e​s​e​r​v​e​-​8​3​248, last acces­sed on 12.06.2022.

[46] Rajat Ghai „Fort­ress Con­ser­va­ti­on: Ten­si­on in Tanzania’s Loliondo as tro­ops move in to evict Maa­sai to make way for game reser­ve” auf „down​toe​arth​.org” from 10.06.2022. Available at https://​www​.down​toe​arth​.org​.in/​n​e​w​s​/​a​f​r​i​c​a​/​f​o​r​t​r​e​s​s​-​c​o​n​s​e​r​v​a​t​i​o​n​-​t​e​n​s​i​o​n​-​i​n​-​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​-​s​-​l​o​l​i​o​n​d​o​-​a​s​-​t​r​o​o​p​s​-​m​o​v​e​-​i​n​-​t​o​-​e​v​i​c​t​-​m​a​a​s​a​i​-​t​o​-​m​a​k​e​-​w​a​y​-​f​o​r​-​g​a​m​e​-​r​e​s​e​r​v​e​-​8​3​248, last acces­sed on 12.06.2022.

[47] Chloé Farand „Tan­z­a­ni­an aut­ho­ri­ties seen ope­ning fire on Maa­sai peo­p­le in game reser­ve dis­pu­te“ on „cli​ma​tech​an​ge​news​.com“ from 10.06.2022 at 5:29 p. m..Available at https://​www​.cli​ma​tech​an​ge​news​.com/​2​0​2​2​/​0​6​/​1​0​/​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​n​-​a​u​t​h​o​r​i​t​i​e​s​-​s​e​e​n​-​o​p​e​n​i​n​g​-​f​i​r​e​-​o​n​-​m​a​a​s​a​i​-​p​e​o​p​l​e​-​i​n​-​g​a​m​e​-​r​e​s​e​r​v​e​-​d​i​s​p​u​t​e​/​?​f​b​c​l​i​d​=​I​w​A​R​3​8​0​J​z​N​S​y​N​t​L​p​Y​4​v​K​y​I​L​K​t​1​O​M​U​J​U​V​t​9​5​t​c​B​z​W​k​G​3​m​L​Z​4​7​H​A​G​e​s​E​m​z​W​Y​0os, last acces­sed on 12.06.2022

[48] Chris Lang „Evic­ting the Maa­sai for “con­ser­va­ti­on” and tro­phy hun­ting in Loliondo, Tan­z­a­nia. Dozens of Maa­sai have been inju­red by gun shots” on „redd​-moni​tor​.org” from 10.06.2022. Available at https://​redd​-moni​tor​.org/​2​0​2​2​/​0​6​/​1​0​/​e​v​i​c​t​i​n​g​-​t​h​e​-​m​a​a​s​a​i​-​f​o​r​-​c​o​n​s​e​r​v​a​t​i​o​n​-​a​n​d​-​t​r​o​p​h​y​-​h​u​n​t​i​n​g​-​i​n​-​l​o​l​i​o​n​d​o​-​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​-​d​o​z​e​n​s​-​o​f​-​m​a​a​s​a​i​-​h​a​v​e​-​b​e​e​n​-​i​n​j​u​r​e​d​-​b​y​-​g​u​n​-​s​h​o​ts/, last acces­sed on 10.06.2022.

[49] Chloé Farand „Tan­z­a­ni­an aut­ho­ri­ties seen ope­ning fire on Maa­sai peo­p­le in game reser­ve dis­pu­te“ on „cli​ma​tech​an​ge​news​.com“ from 10.06.2022 at 5:29 p.m..Available at https://​www​.cli​ma​tech​an​ge​news​.com/​2​0​2​2​/​0​6​/​1​0​/​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​n​-​a​u​t​h​o​r​i​t​i​e​s​-​s​e​e​n​-​o​p​e​n​i​n​g​-​f​i​r​e​-​o​n​-​m​a​a​s​a​i​-​p​e​o​p​l​e​-​i​n​-​g​a​m​e​-​r​e​s​e​r​v​e​-​d​i​s​p​u​t​e​/​?​f​b​c​l​i​d​=​I​w​A​R​3​8​0​J​z​N​S​y​N​t​L​p​Y​4​v​K​y​I​L​K​t​1​O​M​U​J​U​V​t​9​5​t​c​B​z​W​k​G​3​m​L​Z​4​7​H​A​G​e​s​E​m​z​W​Y​0os, last acces­sed on 12.06.2022

[50] Chloé Farand „Tan­z­a­ni­an aut­ho­ri­ties seen ope­ning fire on Maa­sai peo­p­le in game reser­ve dis­pu­te“ on „cli​ma​tech​an​ge​news​.com“ from 10.06.2022 at 5:29 p. m..Available at https://​www​.cli​ma​tech​an​ge​news​.com/​2​0​2​2​/​0​6​/​1​0​/​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​n​-​a​u​t​h​o​r​i​t​i​e​s​-​s​e​e​n​-​o​p​e​n​i​n​g​-​f​i​r​e​-​o​n​-​m​a​a​s​a​i​-​p​e​o​p​l​e​-​i​n​-​g​a​m​e​-​r​e​s​e​r​v​e​-​d​i​s​p​u​t​e​/​?​f​b​c​l​i​d​=​I​w​A​R​3​8​0​J​z​N​S​y​N​t​L​p​Y​4​v​K​y​I​L​K​t​1​O​M​U​J​U​V​t​9​5​t​c​B​z​W​k​G​3​m​L​Z​4​7​H​A​G​e​s​E​m​z​W​Y​0os, last acces­sed on 12.06.2022

[51] Chris Lang „Evic­ting the Maa­sai for “con­ser­va­ti­on” and tro­phy hun­ting in Loliondo, Tan­z­a­nia. Dozens of Maa­sai have been inju­red by gun shots” on „redd​-moni​tor​.org” from 10.06.2022. Available at https://​redd​-moni​tor​.org/​2​0​2​2​/​0​6​/​1​0​/​e​v​i​c​t​i​n​g​-​t​h​e​-​m​a​a​s​a​i​-​f​o​r​-​c​o​n​s​e​r​v​a​t​i​o​n​-​a​n​d​-​t​r​o​p​h​y​-​h​u​n​t​i​n​g​-​i​n​-​l​o​l​i​o​n​d​o​-​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​-​d​o​z​e​n​s​-​o​f​-​m​a​a​s​a​i​-​h​a​v​e​-​b​e​e​n​-​i​n​j​u​r​e​d​-​b​y​-​g​u​n​-​s​h​o​ts/, last acces­sed on 10.06.2022.

[52] Chloé Farand „Tan­z­a­ni­an aut­ho­ri­ties seen ope­ning fire on Maa­sai peo­p­le in game reser­ve dis­pu­te“ on „cli​ma​tech​an​ge​news​.com“ from 10.06.2022 at 5:29 p. m..Available at https://​www​.cli​ma​tech​an​ge​news​.com/​2​0​2​2​/​0​6​/​1​0​/​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​n​-​a​u​t​h​o​r​i​t​i​e​s​-​s​e​e​n​-​o​p​e​n​i​n​g​-​f​i​r​e​-​o​n​-​m​a​a​s​a​i​-​p​e​o​p​l​e​-​i​n​-​g​a​m​e​-​r​e​s​e​r​v​e​-​d​i​s​p​u​t​e​/​?​f​b​c​l​i​d​=​I​w​A​R​3​8​0​J​z​N​S​y​N​t​L​p​Y​4​v​K​y​I​L​K​t​1​O​M​U​J​U​V​t​9​5​t​c​B​z​W​k​G​3​m​L​Z​4​7​H​A​G​e​s​E​m​z​W​Y​0os, last acces­sed on 12.06.2022

[53] Chloé Farand „Tan­z­a­ni­an aut­ho­ri­ties seen ope­ning fire on Maa­sai peo­p­le in game reser­ve dis­pu­te“ on „cli​ma​tech​an​ge​news​.com“ from 10.06.2022 at 5:29 p. m..Available at https://​www​.cli​ma​tech​an​ge​news​.com/​2​0​2​2​/​0​6​/​1​0​/​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​n​-​a​u​t​h​o​r​i​t​i​e​s​-​s​e​e​n​-​o​p​e​n​i​n​g​-​f​i​r​e​-​o​n​-​m​a​a​s​a​i​-​p​e​o​p​l​e​-​i​n​-​g​a​m​e​-​r​e​s​e​r​v​e​-​d​i​s​p​u​t​e​/​?​f​b​c​l​i​d​=​I​w​A​R​3​8​0​J​z​N​S​y​N​t​L​p​Y​4​v​K​y​I​L​K​t​1​O​M​U​J​U​V​t​9​5​t​c​B​z​W​k​G​3​m​L​Z​4​7​H​A​G​e​s​E​m​z​W​Y​0os, last acces­sed on 12.06.2022

[54] Rajat Ghai „Fort­ress Con­ser­va­ti­on: Ten­si­on in Tanzania’s Loliondo as tro­ops move in to evict Maa­sai to make way for game reser­ve” on „down​toe​arth​.org” from 10.06.2022. Available at https://​www​.down​toe​arth​.org​.in/​n​e​w​s​/​a​f​r​i​c​a​/​f​o​r​t​r​e​s​s​-​c​o​n​s​e​r​v​a​t​i​o​n​-​t​e​n​s​i​o​n​-​i​n​-​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​-​s​-​l​o​l​i​o​n​d​o​-​a​s​-​t​r​o​o​p​s​-​m​o​v​e​-​i​n​-​t​o​-​e​v​i​c​t​-​m​a​a​s​a​i​-​t​o​-​m​a​k​e​-​w​a​y​-​f​o​r​-​g​a​m​e​-​r​e​s​e​r​v​e​-​8​3​248, last acces­sed on 12.06.2022.

[55] Rajat Ghai „Fort­ress Con­ser­va­ti­on: Ten­si­on in Tanzania’s Loliondo as tro­ops move in to evict Maa­sai to make way for game reser­ve” on „down​toe​arth​.org” from 10.06.2022. Available at https://​www​.down​toe​arth​.org​.in/​n​e​w​s​/​a​f​r​i​c​a​/​f​o​r​t​r​e​s​s​-​c​o​n​s​e​r​v​a​t​i​o​n​-​t​e​n​s​i​o​n​-​i​n​-​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​-​s​-​l​o​l​i​o​n​d​o​-​a​s​-​t​r​o​o​p​s​-​m​o​v​e​-​i​n​-​t​o​-​e​v​i​c​t​-​m​a​a​s​a​i​-​t​o​-​m​a​k​e​-​w​a​y​-​f​o​r​-​g​a​m​e​-​r​e​s​e​r​v​e​-​8​3​248, last acces­sed on 12.06.2022.

[56] Alex Nel­son Malan­ga „Samia’s call as ‘Roy­al Tour’ is unvei­led in Dar es Salaam” on „the​ci​ti​zen​co​.tz” from 09.05.2022. Available at https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/tanzania/news/national/samia-s-call-as-royal-tour-is-unveiled-in-dar-es-salaam–3809384, last acces­sed on 05.06.2022.

[57] Emi­ly Burack „PBS’s The Roy­al Tour Returns with First Epi­so­de Film­ed Sin­ce COVID-19 Pan­de­mic Began” on „town​andcoun​try​mag​.com” from 20.05.2022. Available at https://​www​.town​andcoun​try​mag​.com/​l​e​i​s​u​r​e​/​a​r​t​s​-​a​n​d​-​c​u​l​t​u​r​e​/​a​4​0​0​6​1​5​6​6​/​p​b​s​-​t​h​e​-​r​o​y​a​l​-​t​o​u​r​-​t​a​n​z​a​n​ia/, last acces­sed on 06.06.2022.

[58] Cf.. Zepha­nia Ubwa­ni „What The Roy­al Tour means to Tan­z­a­nia” on „the​ci​ti​zen​.co​.tz” from 28.04.2022. Available at https://​www​.the​ci​ti​zen​.co​.tz/​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​/​n​e​w​s​/​n​a​t​i​o​n​a​l​/​w​h​a​t​-​t​h​e​-​r​o​y​a​l​-​t​o​u​r​-​m​e​a​n​s​-​t​o​-​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​-​3​7​9​7​120, last acces­sed on 05.06.2022.

[59] Emi­ly Burack „PBS’s The Roy­al Tour Returns with First Epi­so­de Film­ed Sin­ce COVID-19 Pan­de­mic Began” on „town​andcoun​try​mag​.com” from 20.05.2022. Available at https://​www​.town​andcoun​try​mag​.com/​l​e​i​s​u​r​e​/​a​r​t​s​-​a​n​d​-​c​u​l​t​u​r​e​/​a​4​0​0​6​1​5​6​6​/​p​b​s​-​t​h​e​-​r​o​y​a​l​-​t​o​u​r​-​t​a​n​z​a​n​ia/, last acces­sed on 06.06.2022.

[60] „Tan­z­a­ni­an Pre­si­dent to launch the much awai­ted Roy­al Tour film in Aru­sha and Zan­zi­bar” on „tran​qui​liki​li​man​ja​ro​.com” from 27.04.202. Available at https://​www​.tran​quilki​li​man​ja​ro​.com/​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​n​-​p​r​e​s​i​d​e​n​t​-​t​o​-​l​a​u​n​c​h​-​t​h​e​-​m​u​c​h​-​a​w​a​i​t​e​d​-​r​o​y​a​l​-​t​o​u​r​-​f​i​l​m​-​i​n​-​a​r​u​s​h​a​-​a​n​d​-​z​a​n​z​i​b​ar/, last acces­sed on 06.06.2022.

[61] „Tan­z­a­nia The Roy­al Tour Trai­ler” on „you​tube​.com” from 24.12.2021. Available at https://​www​.you​tube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​f​S​b​c​L​V​D​4​JLg, last acces­sed on 06.06.2022.

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