Tan­z­a­nia Part 1: A „bull­do­zer“ with few sym­pa­thies in the West

Tan­z­a­nia is a coun­try in East Afri­ca and the fifth lar­gest coun­try in Afri­ca in terms of popu­la­ti­on and about 2.5 times the size of the Fede­ral Repu­blic of Ger­ma­ny in terms of area.

On 17 March 2021[1],the country’s pre­vious pre­si­dent, Dr John Pom­be Mag­ufu­li[2], a for­mer che­mis­try tea­cher[3], died unex­pec­ted­ly. He was repla­ced by the then Vice-Pre­si­dent and now Acting Pre­si­dent of the coun­try, Ms Samia Sulu­hu Hassan[4], who was born in 1960.

Dr Mag­ufu­li was first elec­ted Pre­si­dent of Tan­z­a­nia on 25 Octo­ber 2015, having held various minis­te­ri­al posts sin­ce 1995. Sin­ce he repea­ted­ly pushed road con­s­truc­tion pro­jects throug­hout the coun­try and was also very uncom­pro­mi­sing in achie­ving his goals, he soon recei­ved the nick­na­me „tin­gatin­ga[5]  (Kishua­he­li: „bull­do­zer“).

Pos­si­ble reasons for Magufuli’s elec­tion as president

Elec­tion obser­vers at the time are said to have often inter­pre­ted Dr Mag­ufu­li as a „com­pro­mi­se can­di­da­te“ to Edward Lowas­sa (Prime Minis­ter in Tan­z­a­nia from 2005 to 2008) and Ber­nard Mem­be (For­eign Minis­ter of Tan­z­a­nia from 2007 to 2015). Accor­ding to this inter­pre­ta­ti­on, various cir­cum­s­tances can also be inter­pre­ted to mean that Dr Mag­ufu­li was the inten­ded can­di­da­te of the CCM par­ty (Cha­ma cha Mapin­du­zi). “The Citi­zen”, for exam­p­le, gives the fol­lo­wing reasons for this:

„First­ly, he had con­cea­led his pre­si­den­ti­al ambi­ti­ons and so he eva­ded media scru­ti­ny and muds­lin­ging from rival camps within the par­ty. This left his image intact.

Second­ly, he was “neu­tral.” He did not have “camps” or net­works (mit­an­dao) that have been so divi­si­ve and threa­ten­ed the unity of CCM in the past decade.

Third­ly, his long nur­tu­red anti-cor­rup­ti­on image would suit CCM bet­ter at the time when the party’s image had been spoilt by cor­rup­ti­on. [6]

A Tan­z­a­ni­an infor­mant with clo­se ties to poli­tics the­re expres­ses a dif­fe­rent assessment:

“Mag­ufu­li was inde­ed alre­a­dy popu­lar, but i would­n’t say he was the anno­in­ted one. Every indi­ca­ti­on was that the anti-Lowas­sa estab­lish­ment was going to go with Mr. Mem­be, the for­mer for­eign minis­ter. And the EU and US were stron­gly behind Mem­be.  Mag­ufu­li beca­me the pre­fer­red com­pro­mi­se becau­se of his per­cie­ved „neu­tra­li­ty“, when it was clear that the Lowa­sa camp would not give up wit­hout a fight.”

Of goats, papa­yas and motor oil

Dr Mag­ufu­li is rever­ed by many peo­p­le in Tan­z­a­nia to this day. In the West, he was best known for his oppo­si­ti­on to lock­downs and other coro­na mea­su­res[7]. He attrac­ted the atten­ti­on of a wider public with a press con­fe­rence in May 2020 in which he rai­sed clear doubts about the relia­bi­li­ty of PCR tests used world­wi­de to detect the coro­na virus[8]:

„So schick­te er Abstri­che von Motor­öl, einer Papa­ya, einer Zie­ge und ver­schie­de­nen ande­ren Din­gen unter aus­ge­dach­ten Deck­na­men in ein staat­li­ches Labor, das die WHO-Tests verwendet.

Die Ergeb­nis­se: Motor­öl wur­de nega­tiv getes­tet, die Papa­ya, eine Zie­ge und ein Kwa­re-Vogel posi­tiv. Bei einer Jack­frucht war der Test „unein­deu­tig“. Ein ähn­li­ches Ergeb­nis brach­te die Prü­fung eines Kanin­chens, „unbe­stimmt“ hieß es in die­sem Fall aus dem Labor.“[9]

Here the trans­la­ti­on with the free ver­si­on of DeepL​.com:

„So he sent swabs of motor oil, a papa­ya, a goat and various other things under made-up ali­a­ses to a govern­ment labo­ra­to­ry that uses the WHO tests.

The results: Motor oil tes­ted nega­ti­ve, the papa­ya, a goat and a kwa­re bird tes­ted posi­ti­ve. For a jack­fruit, the test was „incon­clu­si­ve“. A simi­lar result came from test­ing a rab­bit, „inde­ter­mi­na­te“ was the word from the lab in this case.“

As a result, the head of the natio­nal labo­ra­to­ry had been sus­pen­ded from her duties by Dr Mag­ufu­li[10].

https://t.me/Medienzensur/518

PCR tests do not detect infec­tion or infectivity

That Dr. Mag­ufu­li was cor­rect in his assess­ment of the PCR tests is shown, among other things, by various court decis­i­ons from abroad:

  • Por­tu­gal (Lis­bon Court of Appeal, Tri­bu­nal da Rela­ção de Lis­boa, Az. Proc. Nº 1783⁄20. 7T8PDL.L1[11]),
  • Aus­tria (Vien­na Admi­nis­tra­ti­ve Court, decis­i­on of 24.03.2021, case num­ber: VGW-103/048/3227/2021–2[12])
  • Ger­ma­ny (e.g. Wei­mar Local Court, decis­i­on of 08.04.2021, ref: 9 F 148⁄21[13]; OVG North Rhi­ne-West­pha­lia, decis­i­on of 25.11.2020, ref: 13 B 1780 / 20​.NE[14]. Simi­lar­ly, see also Saxon Hig­her Admi­nis­tra­ti­ve Court, decis­i­on of 17.11.2020, ref. 3 B 351/20[15]).

In sum­ma­ry, it was estab­lished in the con­text of the desi­gna­ted court cases that a PCR test can neither pro­ve an infec­tion with Covid-19 nor infectivity:

„Ein PCR-Tests prüft auf das Vor­han­den­sein von Erb­ma­te­ri­al eines Virus in einer Pro­be – und nicht dar­auf, ob tat­säch­lich eine Infek­ti­on vor­liegt. Der Test unter­schei­det nicht zwi­schen leben­di­gem bzw. akti­vem und totem und somit inak­ti­vem Virus­ma­te­ri­al.“[16]

Here the trans­la­ti­on with the free ver­si­on of DeepL​.com:

„A PCR test checks for the pre­sence of gene­tic mate­ri­al of a virus in a sam­ple – and not whe­ther an infec­tion is actual­ly pre­sent. The test does not distin­gu­ish bet­ween live or acti­ve viral mate­ri­al and dead and the­r­e­fo­re inac­ti­ve viral material.”

Natu­ral medi­ci­ne rather than wes­tern gene injections

Dr Mag­ufu­li also attrac­ted atten­ti­on with war­nings to his com­pa­tri­ots not to get vac­ci­na­ted against Covid-19 and, for ins­tance, to rather resort to tra­di­tio­nal reme­dies[17], [18]. Among other things, the for­mer Tan­z­a­ni­an pre­si­dent was quo­ted as saying:

„You should stand firm. Vac­ci­na­ti­ons are dan­ge­rous. If the white man was able to come up with vac­ci­na­ti­ons, he should have found a vac­ci­na­ti­on for Aids by now; he would have found a vac­ci­na­ti­on of tuber­cu­lo­sis by now; he would have found a vac­ci­na­ti­on for mala­ria by now; he would have found a vac­ci­na­ti­on for can­cer by now” [19].

Dubio­us free­dom of the press in Tanzania?

Dr Magufule’s refu­sal to go along with the Wes­tern Coro­na hype was met with incom­pre­hen­si­on in the Wes­tern press:

„Im ver­gan­ge­nen Jahr wur­den meh­re­re Zei­tun­gen vor­über­ge­hend geschlos­sen, dar­un­ter mit „Mwa­nan­chi“ auch die größ­te des Lan­des. Die Begrün­dung: Sie hat­te über die Pan­de­mie berich­tet, die es nach Auf­fas­sung des Prä­si­den­ten nicht gab. Denn Mag­ufu­li glaub­te, den Virus weg­ge­be­tet zu haben. Im August erließ das Par­la­ment ein Gesetz, das der Pres­se ver­bie­tet, ohne Geneh­mi­gung über den Aus­bruch einer Infek­ti­ons­krank­heit zu berich­ten. Wer gegen das Gesetz ver­stößt, dem Droht ein Jahr Haft.“[20]

Here the trans­la­ti­on with the free ver­si­on of DeepL​.com:

„Last year, seve­ral news­pa­pers were tem­po­r­a­ri­ly clo­sed, inclu­ding „Mwa­nan­chi“, the lar­gest in the coun­try. The reason given was that it had repor­ted on the pan­de­mic, which, accor­ding to the pre­si­dent, did not exist. Mag­ufu­li belie­ved that he had pray­ed the virus away. In August, par­lia­ment pas­sed a law pro­hi­bi­ting the press from report­ing on the out­break of an infec­tious dise­a­se wit­hout per­mis­si­on. Tho­se who vio­la­te the law face one year in prison.“

Of cour­se, such a rest­ric­tion on press free­dom is no more demo­cra­tic than the exten­si­ve de fac­to exclu­si­on of cri­tics of the Coro­na mea­su­re from public dis­cour­se in the Fede­ral Repu­blic of Ger­ma­ny. Whe­re was the out­cry from Ger­man media repre­sen­ta­ti­ves the­re when US Pre­si­dent Donald Trump’s Twit­ter account[21]was blo­cked? Whe­re did we see the front pages of the major Ger­man dai­lies show­ing outra­ge over the cen­sor­ship of various chan­nels of „Quer­den­ken[22] and other Coro­na mea­su­res cri­tics by You­Tube and Face­book[23], [24], [25], [26], over the ban­ning of „Sput­nik“[27] and „RT DE“[28], [29]  or the dele­ti­on of the AfD-party’s Tik-Tok chan­nel[30]? Whe­re was the outra­ge when the inter­na­tio­nal­ly renow­ned Ger­man ENT-spe­cia­list Dr. Bodo Schiff­mann from Sins­heim in Ger­ma­ny first went on holi­day to Aru­sha in Tan­z­a­nia and then emi­gra­ted the­re becau­se media agi­ta­ti­on and legal­ly ques­tionable house sear­ches[31], [32], [33], [34] made a nor­mal life in Ger­ma­ny vir­tual­ly impos­si­ble? Why is a pro-Rus­si­an or Ukrai­ne-cri­ti­cal stance in the Ukrai­ne cri­sis using the „Z“ sign punis­ha­ble in Ger­ma­ny with up to three years‘ impri­son­ment[35] with refe­rence to Sec­tion 140 of the Cri­mi­nal Code as alle­ged appr­oval of a war of aggres­si­on? Whe­re were com­pa­ra­ble punish­ments for poli­ti­ci­ans or citi­zens who appro­ved an ille­gal war of aggres­si­on on for­mer Yugo­sla­via[36] or Iraq[37]? Why are doc­tors and sci­en­tists like Prof. Dr. Sucha­rit Bhak­di or Dr. Bodo Schiff­mann in Ger­ma­ny, with the par­ti­ci­pa­ti­on of the media, having their repu­ta­ti­ons actively des­troy­ed or even being legal­ly per­se­cu­ted with dubio­us argu­ments[38]? How can it be that Dr. Dani­el Lang­hans is sim­ply pre­ven­ted from spea­king by the poli­ce during his speech at the major demons­tra­ti­on in Hano­ver on 14.05.2022? Lang­hans wore a heart T‑shirt on stage with the colours of the flags of Rus­sia and Ukrai­ne and stood for the recon­ci­lia­ti­on of the two war­ring par­ties[39]. In the spi­rit of free­dom of expres­si­on, is it no lon­ger allo­wed to pro­mo­te recon­ci­lia­ti­on ins­tead of wan­ting to end a war? Tho­se who publicly cri­ti­cise the lack of press free­dom and free­dom of expres­si­on in Tan­z­a­nia should also publicly cri­ti­cise their own system.

Suc­cessful against corruption

In autumn 2015, Dr Mag­ufu­li, repre­sen­ting the CCM par­ty, won with 58% of the vote against his oppo­nent Edward Lowas­sa, who got 40% of the vote[40], [41].  Right at the begin­ning of his term in office, he suc­cessful­ly cam­pai­gned against cor­rup­ti­on[42]. He also show­ed hims­elf to be a doer in other respects:

„On his first day in char­ge, Mag­ufu­li signal­led the end of busi­ness as usu­al with a sur­pri­se visit to the finan­ce minis­try, whe­re he bera­ted civil ser­vants who were not at their desks. Sin­ce then, he has can­cel­led lavish inde­pen­dence day cele­bra­ti­ons to free up funds to fight a cho­le­ra out­break; slas­hed the bud­get for a sta­te din­ner to cele­bra­te the ope­ning of par­lia­ment, using the money to buy hos­pi­tal beds; and  for all govern­ment offi­ci­als except the pre­si­dent, vice-pre­si­dent and prime minis­ter.“[43]

In 2020, Mag­ufu­li had been re-elec­ted with 84% of the vote. The main oppo­sing can­di­da­te obtai­ned just 13% of the vote. At the time, the press repor­ted alle­ga­ti­ons of pos­si­ble elec­to­ral fraud, even though the elec­tion result was reco­g­nis­ed by the gre­at mass of the popu­la­ti­on. [44] This seems com­pa­ra­ble to the sub­stan­tia­ted alle­ga­ti­ons of pos­si­ble elec­to­ral fraud in favour of Joe Biden in the USA.

Two sides of the same coin

Mag­ufu­li show­ed hims­elf to be a mover and shaker during his time in power, but he was not wit­hout con­tro­ver­sy. One Tan­z­a­ni­an descri­bed him to the aut­hor as a „dic­ta­tor who pre­ven­ted demo­cra­cy and sup­pres­sed his cri­tics“.

„Dabei war es dem ver­stor­be­nen Prä­si­den­ten Mag­ufu­li und sei­ner Poli­tik zu ver­dan­ken, dass Tan­sa­nia zu einem pro­spe­rie­ren­den Mit­tel­stand­land in Afri­ka wur­de. Er lehn­te Mil­li­ar­den­kre­di­te aus Chi­na eben­so ab, wie Bestechungs­gel­der aus der EU. Er mach­te kei­ne Staats­be­su­che außer­halb Afri­kas und ver­klei­ner­te sein poli­ti­sches Kabi­nett, dem er eben­falls Aus­lands­rei­sen unter­sag­te und ihm zudem Steu­er­erleich­te­run­gen strich.“[45]

Here is the trans­la­ti­on with the free ver­si­on of DeepL​.com:

„Yet it was thanks to the late Pre­si­dent Mag­ufu­li and his poli­ci­es that Tan­z­a­nia beca­me a pro­spe­rous midd­le class coun­try in Afri­ca. He rejec­ted loans worth bil­li­ons from Chi­na as well as bri­bes from the EU. He made no sta­te visits out­side Afri­ca and redu­ced the size of his poli­ti­cal cabi­net, which he also ban­ned from for­eign tra­vel and also cut tax breaks.“

The „Ber­li­ner Mis­si­ons­werk“ descri­bes Mag­ufu­li as very ambi­va­lent in an artic­le that is over­all very tendentious:

„Prä­si­dent John Mag­ufu­li herrsch­te sehr umstrit­ten. Einer­seits schaff­te er es, Kor­rup­ti­on erfolg­reich zu bekämp­fen, Groß­pro­jek­te vor­an­zu­trei­ben und den Staats­ap­pa­rat zu ent­schla­cken. Ande­rer­seits erwarb er sich bin­nen kur­zer Zeit den Ruf eines Machers, eines „Bull­do­zers“, wie er in Tan­sa­nia genannt wur­de. Er ver­bat sich jeg­li­che Kri­tik an sei­nem Füh­rungs­stil, sperr­te Oppo­si­ti­ons­po­li­ti­ker ein, behin­der­te groß­flä­chig mit sei­ner Par­tei die Wah­len, zen­sier­te die Medi­en, demü­tig­te Anders­den­ken­de.“[46]

Here is the trans­la­ti­on with the free ver­si­on of DeepL​.com:

„Pre­si­dent John Mag­ufu­li ruled very con­tro­ver­si­al­ly. On the one hand, he mana­ged to suc­cessful­ly fight cor­rup­ti­on, push ahead with major pro­jects and stream­li­ne the sta­te appa­ra­tus. On the other hand, he quick­ly acqui­red the repu­ta­ti­on of a doer, a „bull­do­zer“, as he was cal­led in Tan­z­a­nia. He for­ba­de any cri­ti­cism of his lea­der­ship style, impri­so­ned oppo­si­ti­on poli­ti­ci­ans, obs­truc­ted elec­tions on a lar­ge sca­le with his par­ty, cen­so­red the media, humi­lia­ted dissenters.”

Other media also descri­bed Mag­ufu­li as a doer who enjoy­ed gre­at vene­ra­ti­on among the peo­p­le, but nevert­hel­ess cle­ar­ly pola­ri­sed and did not exact­ly hand­le poli­ti­cal enemies with kid gloves[47]. This is con­sis­tent with the accounts of Mag­ufu­li from May 2022, which, in addi­ti­on to his gre­at importance for Tan­z­a­nia in a posi­ti­ve sen­se, also men­tio­ned that poli­ti­cal oppon­ents some­ti­mes had to fear for their lives. Howe­ver, Tan­z­a­ni­ans repea­ted­ly empha­sis­ed that he had pro­tec­ted them from vac­ci­na­ti­on and other coro­na mea­su­res. The mere men­ti­on of his name evo­ked enthu­si­asm among many Tan­z­a­ni­ans. Thus, Mag­ufu­li remains unf­or­got­ten to this day.

The Ger­man ori­gi­nal copy of this text can be found here, ano­ther artic­le about the situa­ti­on in Afri­ca here.


[1] „John Mag­ufu­li. Tan­sa­ni­as Prä­si­dent gestor­ben“ on „zdf​.de“ from 17.03.2021 at 10:38 p.m. Available under https://​www​.zdf​.de/​n​a​c​h​r​i​c​h​t​e​n​/​p​a​n​o​r​a​m​a​/​t​a​n​s​a​n​i​a​-​p​r​a​e​s​i​d​e​n​t​-​m​a​g​u​f​u​l​i​-​t​o​t​-​1​0​0​.​h​tml, last time loo­ked up at 11.05.2022.

[2] „John Mag­ufu­li. Tan­sa­ni­as Prä­si­dent gestor­ben“ on „zdf​.de“ from 17.03.2021 at 10:38 p.m. Available under https://​www​.zdf​.de/​n​a​c​h​r​i​c​h​t​e​n​/​p​a​n​o​r​a​m​a​/​t​a​n​s​a​n​i​a​-​p​r​a​e​s​i​d​e​n​t​-​m​a​g​u​f​u​l​i​-​t​o​t​-​1​0​0​.​h​tml, last time loo­ked up at 11.05.2022.

[3] reu­ters „Tan­z­a­nia arrests 4 peo­p­le for report­ing that pre­si­dent Mag­ufu­li is ill” at „zim​li​ve​.com” from 15.03.2021 at 9:31 p.m. Available under https://​www​.zim​li​ve​.com/​2​0​2​1​/​0​3​/​1​5​/​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​-​a​r​r​e​s​t​s​-​4​-​p​e​o​p​l​e​-​f​o​r​-​r​e​p​o​r​t​i​n​g​-​t​h​a​t​-​p​r​e​s​i​d​e​n​t​-​m​a​g​u​f​u​l​i​-​i​s​-​i​ll/, last time loo­ked up at 11.05.2022.

[4] reu­ters „Tan­z­a­nia arrests 4 peo­p­le for report­ing that pre­si­dent Mag­ufu­li is ill” at „zim​li​ve​.com” from 15.03.2021 at 9:31 p.m. Available under https://​www​.zim​li​ve​.com/​2​0​2​1​/​0​3​/​1​5​/​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​-​a​r​r​e​s​t​s​-​4​-​p​e​o​p​l​e​-​f​o​r​-​r​e​p​o​r​t​i​n​g​-​t​h​a​t​-​p​r​e​s​i​d​e​n​t​-​m​a​g​u​f​u​l​i​-​i​s​-​i​ll/, last time loo­ked up at 11.05.2022.

[5] See e. g.  Dot­to Kwi­la­sa „MAMBO KUMI YALIYOTIKISA KUAGWA KWA HAYATI DKT. MAGUFULI“ at „dodo​ma​newz​.blog​spot​.com“ from 27.03.2021. Available under https://​dodo​ma​newz​.blog​spot​.com/​2​0​2​1​/​0​3​/​m​a​m​b​o​-​k​u​m​i​-​y​a​l​i​y​o​t​i​k​i​s​a​-​k​u​a​g​w​a​-​k​w​a​.​h​tml, last time loo­ked up at 25.05.2022.

[6] „Was Mag­ufu­li CCM’s best kept secret?” at „the​ci​ti​zen​.co​.tz” from 04.11.2015. Available under https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/tanzania/magazines/political-reforms/was-magufuli-ccm-s-best-kept-secret–2537350, last time loo­ked up at 25.05.2022

[7] See e. g. „It’s time for Afri­ca to rein in Tanzania’s anti-vax­xer pre­si­dent” auf „the​guar​di​an​.com” from 08.02.2021 at 08:30 a.m. Available under https://​amp​.the​guar​di​an​.com/​g​l​o​b​a​l​-​d​e​v​e​l​o​p​m​e​n​t​/​2​0​2​1​/​f​e​b​/​0​8​/​i​t​s​-​t​i​m​e​-​f​o​r​-​a​f​r​i​c​a​-​t​o​-​r​e​i​n​-​i​n​-​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​s​-​a​n​t​i​-​v​a​x​x​e​r​-​p​r​e​s​i​d​ent, last time loo­ked up at 11.05.2022.

[8] A Ger­man dub­bed video can be found at: „Das darfst du nicht sehen! In You­Tube gelösch­te sowie in Face­book gesperr­te Vide­os- Mei­nungs­frei­heit hier Art. 5 Grund­ge­setz „‼️Von You­tube ohne Vor­war­nung gelöscht!!!“  on t.me. Available under https://t.me/Medienzensur/518, last time loo­ked up at 12.05.2022.

[9] „POLITIKER SCHICKT OBST UND MOTORÖL ZUM CORONA-TEST, DIE ERGEBNISSE ÜBERRASCHEN!“ at „tag24​.de“ from 09.05.2020 at 11:11 a.m. Available under https://​www​.tag24​.de/​n​a​c​h​r​i​c​h​t​e​n​/​p​o​l​i​t​i​k​/​i​n​t​e​r​n​a​t​i​o​n​a​l​/​p​o​l​i​t​i​k​e​r​-​i​n​t​e​r​n​a​t​i​o​n​a​l​/​p​o​l​i​t​i​k​e​r​-​s​c​h​i​c​k​t​e​-​o​b​s​t​-​u​n​d​-​m​o​t​o​r​o​e​l​-​z​u​m​-​c​o​r​o​n​a​-​t​e​s​t​-​d​i​e​-​e​r​g​e​b​n​i​s​s​e​-​u​e​b​e​r​r​a​s​c​h​e​n​-​1​5​1​0​787, last time loo­ked up at 11.05.2022.

[10] n‑tv.de „Papa­ya posi­tiv auf Coro­na getes­tet? Tan­sa­nia kri­ti­siert WHO“ at „n‑tv.“de from 07.05.2020 at 4:55 p.m.. Available under https://www.n‑tv.de/der_tag/Papaya-positiv-auf-Corona-getestet-Tansania-kritisiert-WHO-article21766364.html, last time loo­ked up at 11.05.2022.

[11] Available under https://crlisboa.org/wp/juris/processo-n-o1783-20–7t8pdl-l1‑3/, last time loo­ked up at 30.10.2021. Look up the fol­lo­wing quo­te: „Face à actu­al evi­dên­cia cien­tí­fi­ca, esse tes­te mos­tra-se, só por si, inca­paz de deter­minar, sem mar­gem de dúvi­da razoá­vel, que tal posi­tiv­i­da­de cor­re­spon­de, de fac­to, à infec­ção de uma pes­soa pelo vírus SARS-CoV‑2, por vári­as razões, das quais desta­ca­mos duas (a que acre­sce a ques­tão do gold stan­dard que, pela sua espe­ci­fi­ci­da­de, nem sequer abor­da­remos) […]“. Here is the trans­la­ti­on:  „Given the cur­rent sci­en­ti­fic evi­dence, this test alo­ne pro­ves inca­pa­ble of deter­mi­ning bey­ond reasonable doubt that such posi­ti­vi­ty in fact cor­re­sponds to a per­son being infec­ted by the SARS-CoV‑2 virus, for various reasons, of which we hight­light two (in addi­ti­on to the issue of the gold stan­dard which, given its spe­ci­fi­ci­ty, we will not even go ito) [….]”

[12] Available under http://www.verwaltungsgericht.wien.gv.at/Content.Node/rechtsprechung/103–048-3227–2021.pdf, last time loo­ked up at 30.10.2021. See espe­ci­al­ly the fol­lo­wing quo­te: „Muta­tis mut­an­dis sagt er damit, dass ein PCR-Test nicht zur Dia­gnos­tik geeig­net ist und daher für sich allei­ne nichts zur Krank­heit oder einer Infek­ti­on eines Men­schen aus­sagt. […] Laut einer Stu­die aus dem Jahr 2020 (Bull­ard, J., Dust, K., Funk, D., Strong, J. E., Alex­an­der, D., Gar­nett, L., … & Poli­quin, G. (2020). Pre­dic­ting infec­tious seve­re acu­te respi­ra­to­ry syn­dro­me coro­na­vi­rus 2 from dia­gno­stic samples. Cli­ni­cal Infec­tious Dise­a­ses, 71(10), 2663–2666.) ist bei CT-Wer­ten grö­ßer als 24 kein ver­meh­rungs­fä­hi­ger Virus mehr nach­weis­bar und ein PCR Test nicht dazu geeig­net, die Infek­tio­si­tät zu bestim­men.“ Here is the trans­la­ti­on: “Muta­tis mut­an­dis, he is say­ing that a PCR test is not sui­ta­ble for dia­gno­sis and the­r­e­fo­re does not in its­elf say any­thing about a person’s dise­a­se or infec­tion. […] Accor­ding to a 2020 stu­dy (Bull­ard, J., Dust, K., Funk, D., Strong, J. E., Alex­an­der, D., Gar­nett, L., … & Poli­quin, G. (2020). Pre­dic­ting infec­tious seve­re acu­te respi­ra­to­ry syn­dro­me coro­na­vi­rus 2 from dia­gno­stic samples. Cli­ni­cal Infec­tious Dise­a­ses, 71(10), 2663–2666.) no repli­ca­ble virus is detec­ta­ble at CT values grea­ter than 24 and a PCR assay is not sui­ta­ble for deter­mi­ning infectivity.“

[13] Available under https://​open​jur​.de/​u​/​2​3​3​4​6​3​9​.​h​tml, last time loo­ked up at 30.10.2021. See here the folo­wing quo­te: „Zur Tes­tung asym­pto­ma­ti­scher Men­schen anhand eines Nasen-Rachen­ab­strichs, wie er mas­sen­wei­se unkri­tisch und über­wie­gend von nicht-medi­zi­ni­schen Per­so­nal OHNE (hier­bei ent­schei­dend: ent­ge­gen der WHO-For­de­rung!) Ana­mne­se- und Sym­pto­m­erhe­bung bei den Getes­te­ten erfolgt, ist die ein­ge­setz­te RT-qPCR nicht taug­lich, eine Infek­ti­on mit SARS-CoV‑2 zu erken­nen. […] Wie die RT-PCR kön­nen auch Anti­gen­schnell­tests prin­zi­pi­ell nicht nach­wei­sen, ob das gefun­de­ne Virusan­ti­gen zu einem intak­ten, infek­tiö­sen Virus gehört oder ein Über­bleib­sel (Bruch­stück) von Viren ist, wel­che durch das Immun­sys­tem abge­tö­tet wur­den.“ Here is the trans­la­ti­on: “The RT-qPCR used to test asym­pto­ma­tic peo­p­le on the basis of a nas­opha­ryn­ge­al swab, as is done uncri­ti­cal­ly in lar­ge num­bers and pre­do­mi­nant­ly by non-medi­cal staff WITHOUT (cru­ci­al­ly here: con­tra­ry to the WHO requi­re­ment!) taking ana­mne­sis and sym­ptoms from tho­se tes­ted, is not sui­ta­ble for detec­ting infec­tion with SARS-CoV‑2. […] Like RT-PCR, rapid anti­gen tests can­not in prin­ci­ple detect whe­ther the viral anti­gen found belongs to an int­act, infec­tious virus or is a rem­nant (frag­ment) of viru­s­es that have been kil­led by the immu­ne system.“”

[14]  Available under https://​open​jur​.de/​u​/​2​3​1​1​1​4​9​.​h​tml, last time loo­ked up at 30.10.2021: „2. Der Antrag­stel­ler weist zwar zutref­fend dar­auf hin, dass ein posi­ti­ver PCR-Test als sol­cher noch kei­ne Infek­tio­si­tät im Ein­zel­fall belegt.

Sie­he dazu etwa

https://​dgn​.org/​n​e​u​r​o​n​e​w​s​/​j​o​u​r​n​a​l​_​c​l​u​b​/​v​o​r​h​e​r​s​a​g​e​d​e​r​i​n​f​e​k​t​i​o​s​i​t​a​e​t​v​o​n​s​a​r​s​c​o​v​-​2​-​b​e​i​p​o​s​i​t​i​v​e​r​p​cr/, abge­ru­fen am 24. Novem­ber 2020.“ Here is the trans­la­ti­on: „The appli­cant cor­rect­ly points out that a posi­ti­ve PCR test as such does not pro­ve infec­ti­vi­ty in an indi­vi­du­al case.

See for instance.

https://​dgn​.org/​n​e​u​r​o​n​e​w​s​/​j​o​u​r​n​a​l​_​c​l​u​b​/​v​o​r​h​e​r​s​a​g​e​d​e​r​i​n​f​e​k​t​i​o​s​i​t​a​e​t​v​o​n​s​a​r​s​c​o​v​-​2​-​b​e​i​p​o​s​i​t​i​v​e​r​p​cr/, acces­sed 24 Novem­ber 2020.“ The inter­net refe­rence named in the decis­i­on can no lon­ger be accessed.

[15] Available under https://​www​.jus​tiz​.sach​sen​.de/​o​v​g​e​n​t​s​c​h​w​e​b​/​d​o​c​u​m​e​n​t​s​/​2​0​B​3​5​1​.​B​0​1​.​pdf, last time loo­ked up at 30.10.2021. See here para­graph 41: „Soweit der Antrag­stel­ler vor­trägt, dass ein posi­ti­ver PCR-Test kei­nen Schluss dar­auf zulas­se, ob eine Infek­ti­on oder Krank­heit vor­lie­ge, mag dies grund­sätz­lich zutref­fen.“ Here is the trans­la­ti­on: „To the ext­ent that the appli­cant argues that a posi­ti­ve PCR test does not allow a con­clu­si­on to be drawn as to whe­ther an infec­tion or dise­a­se is pre­sent, this may be true in principle.“

[16] „Sinn­lo­se PCR-Tests: Aus­tra­li­sche Behör­de gibt zwei Jah­re Betrug am Volk zu“ auf „repor​t24​.news“ from 18.05.2022. Available under https://​repor​t24​.news/​s​i​n​n​l​o​s​e​-​p​c​r​-​t​e​s​t​s​-​a​u​s​t​r​a​l​i​s​c​h​e​-​b​e​h​o​e​r​d​e​-​g​i​b​t​-​z​w​e​i​-​j​a​h​r​e​-​b​e​t​r​u​g​-​a​m​-​v​o​l​k​-​zu/, last time loo­ked up at 22.05.2022.

[17] See e. g. afri­ca­news „Pre­si­dent Mag­ufu­li warns Tan­z­a­ni­ans against Covid-19 vac­ci­nes” on „you​tube​.com” from 27.01.2021. Available under https://​www​.you​tube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​D​B​E​s​-​k​d​w​-ZY, last time loo­ked up at 11.05.2022.

[18] Micha­el Odu­or „Pre­si­dent Mag­ufu­li warns Tan­z­a­ni­ans against Covid-19 vac­ci­nes” at „afri​ca​news​.com” from27.01.2021. Available under https://​www​.afri​ca​news​.com/​2​0​2​1​/​0​1​/​2​7​/​p​r​e​s​i​d​e​n​t​-​m​a​g​u​f​u​l​i​-​w​a​r​n​s​-​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​n​s​-​a​g​a​i​n​s​t​-​c​o​v​i​d​-​1​9​-​v​a​c​c​i​n​es/, last time loo­ked up at 11.05.2022.

[19] Micha­el Odu­or „Pre­si­dent Mag­ufu­li warns Tan­z­a­ni­ans against Covid-19 vac­ci­nes” at „afri​ca​news​.com” from27.01.2021. Available under https://​www​.afri​ca​news​.com/​2​0​2​1​/​0​1​/​2​7​/​p​r​e​s​i​d​e​n​t​-​m​a​g​u​f​u​l​i​-​w​a​r​n​s​-​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​n​s​-​a​g​a​i​n​s​t​-​c​o​v​i​d​-​1​9​-​v​a​c​c​i​n​es/, last time loo­ked up at 11.05.2022.

[20] Johan­nes Die­te­rich „Gefäng­nis für Coro­na-Berich­te“ at „fr​.de“ from 20.04.2021 at 5:29 p.m. Available under https://​www​.fr​.de/​p​o​l​i​t​i​k​/​g​e​f​a​e​n​g​n​i​s​-​f​u​e​r​-​c​o​r​o​n​a​-​b​e​r​i​c​h​t​e​-​9​0​4​6​7​9​6​2​.​h​tml, last time loo­ked up at 13.05.2022.

[21] „Twit­ter sperrt Trump „dau­er­haft““ at „tages​schau​.de“ from 09.01.2021 at 04:52 a.m. Available under https://​www​.tages​schau​.de/​a​u​s​l​a​n​d​/​a​m​e​r​i​k​a​/​t​w​i​t​t​e​r​-​s​p​e​r​r​t​-​t​r​u​m​p​-​1​0​1​.​h​tml, last time loo­ked up at 13.05.2022.

[22] Chris­toph Kehl­bach und Micha­el-Mat­thi­as Nord­hardt „150 Kon­ten und Grup­pen betrof­fen. Face­book geht gegen „Quer­den­ken“ vor: Sind die Löschun­gen erlaubt?“  az „swr​.de“ from 17.09.2021 at 4:35 p.m. Available under https://​www​.swr​.de/​s​w​r​a​k​t​u​e​l​l​/​b​a​d​e​n​-​w​u​e​r​t​t​e​m​b​e​r​g​/​f​a​q​-​f​a​c​e​b​o​o​k​-​l​o​e​s​c​h​t​-​q​u​e​r​d​e​n​k​e​n​-​k​a​n​a​e​l​e​-​1​0​0​.​h​tml, last time loo­ked up at 13.05.2022.

[23] Max Schä­fer „#alle­sauf­den­tisch: You­tube sperrt erneut Coro­na-Vide­os“ at „fr​.de“ from 14.10.2021 at 09:06 a.m. Available under https://​www​.fr​.de/​p​a​n​o​r​a​m​a​/​v​o​l​k​e​r​-​b​r​u​c​h​-​y​o​u​t​u​b​e​-​c​o​r​o​n​a​-​v​i​d​e​o​s​-​g​e​l​o​e​s​c​h​t​-​a​l​l​e​s​a​u​f​d​e​n​t​i​s​c​h​-​p​a​n​d​e​m​i​e​-​k​r​i​t​i​k​-​z​r​-​9​1​0​4​4​7​7​9​.​h​tml, last time loo­ked up at 13.05.2022.

[24] Julia Jan­n­aschk „„Über soge­nann­te sozia­le Medi­en wie Face­book und auch You­Tube wer­den Ver­schwö­rungs­my­then nor­ma­li­siert“: Exper­te kom­men­tiert Löschung der Quer­den­ker-Grup­pen auf Face­book“ at „wat​son​.de“ from 17.09.2021 at 5:06 p. m. and 18.09.2021 at 12:21 a.m.. Available under https://​www​.wat​son​.de/​l​e​b​e​n​/​a​n​a​l​y​s​e​/​9​5​1​1​3​0​0​0​7​-​e​x​p​e​r​t​e​-​k​o​m​m​e​n​t​i​e​r​t​-​l​o​e​s​c​h​u​n​g​-​d​e​r​-​q​u​e​r​d​e​n​k​e​r​-​g​r​u​p​p​e​n​-​a​u​f​-​f​a​c​e​b​ook, last time loo­ked up at 13.05.2022.

[25] „BR24 Redak­ti­on Face­book löscht „Querdenken“-Kanäle als „schäd­li­ches Netz­werk““ at „br​.de“ from 16.09.2021 at 8:45 p.m.. Available under https://​www​.br​.de/​n​a​c​h​r​i​c​h​t​e​n​/​n​e​t​z​w​e​l​t​/​f​a​c​e​b​o​o​k​-​l​o​e​s​c​h​t​-​q​u​e​r​d​e​n​k​e​n​-​k​a​n​a​e​l​e​-​a​l​s​-​s​c​h​a​e​d​l​i​c​h​e​s​-​n​e​t​z​w​e​r​k​,​S​j​C​N​xCu, last time loo­ked up at 13.05.2022.

[26] „Face­book löscht Kanä­le und Grup­pen der „Quer­den­ker““ at „tages​spie​gel​.de“ from 17.09.2021 at 06:01 a.m.. Available under https://​www​.tages​spie​gel​.de/​g​e​s​e​l​l​s​c​h​a​f​t​/​s​c​h​a​e​d​l​i​c​h​e​s​-​n​e​t​z​w​e​r​k​-​f​a​c​e​b​o​o​k​-​l​o​e​s​c​h​t​-​k​a​n​a​e​l​e​-​u​n​d​-​g​r​u​p​p​e​n​-​d​e​r​-​q​u​e​r​d​e​n​k​e​r​/​2​7​6​2​1​0​1​4​.​h​tml, last time loo­ked up at 13.05.2022.

[27] Micha­el Bor­gers „EU-Ver­bot von RT und Sput­nik „Wir erle­ben einen Infor­ma­ti­ons­krieg“ at „deutsch​land​funk​.de“ from 03.03.2022. Available under https://​www​.deutsch​land​funk​.de/​e​u​-​v​e​r​b​o​t​-​r​t​-​d​e​-​d​e​b​a​t​t​e​-​r​e​a​k​t​i​o​n​e​n​-​1​0​0​.​h​tml, last time loo­ked up at 13.05.2022.

[28] „RT DE trotzt Zen­sur und Hacker­an­grif­fen – Wir sind wei­ter­hin über Alter­na­ti­ven erreich­bar“ at „de​.rt​.com“ from 02.04.2022 at 08:15 Uhr. Available under https://​de​.rt​.com/​i​n​l​a​n​d​/​1​3​5​2​4​1​-​r​t​-​d​e​-​t​r​o​t​z​t​-​z​e​n​s​u​r​-​u​n​d​-​h​a​c​k​e​r​a​n​g​r​i​f​f​en/, last time loo­ked up at 13.05.2022.

[29] Micha­el Bor­gers „EU-Ver­bot von RT und Sput­nik „Wir erle­ben einen Infor­ma­ti­ons­krieg“ at „deutsch​land​funk​.de“ from 03.03.2022. Available under https://​www​.deutsch​land​funk​.de/​e​u​-​v​e​r​b​o​t​-​r​t​-​d​e​-​d​e​b​a​t​t​e​-​r​e​a​k​t​i​o​n​e​n​-​1​0​0​.​h​tml, last time loo­ked up at 13.05.2022.

[30] „Tik­Tok löscht AfD-Kanal“ at „jun​ge​frei​heit​.de“ from 10.05.2022. Available under https://​jun​ge​frei​heit​.de/​p​o​l​i​t​i​k​/​d​e​u​t​s​c​h​l​a​n​d​/​2​0​2​2​/​t​i​k​t​o​k​-​l​o​e​s​c​h​t​-​a​f​d​-​k​a​n​al/, last time loo­ked up at 13.05.2022.

[31] „Poli­zei zu Haus­durch­su­chung bei „Querdenken“-Arzt Bodo Schiff­mann“ at „t‑online.de“ from 27.10.2020. Available under https://www.t‑online.de/nachrichten/deutschland/id_88827988/polizei-zu-hausdurchsuchung-bei-querdenken-arzt-bodo-schiffmann-.html, last time loo­ked up at 14.05.2022.

[32] Eliran Ken­di „Bodo Schiff­mann: „Querdenker“-Arzt nach Afri­ka geflüch­tet – „Mei­ne Kin­der sind stolz auf mich““ at „heidelberg24“.de from 11.03.2021 at 07:52 a.m. Available under https://​www​.hei​del​ber​g24​.de/​r​e​g​i​o​n​/​b​o​d​o​-​s​c​h​i​f​f​m​a​n​n​-​r​a​z​z​i​a​-​c​o​r​o​n​a​-​m​a​s​k​e​-​q​u​e​r​d​e​n​k​e​n​-​s​i​n​s​h​e​i​m​-​h​e​i​d​e​l​b​e​r​g​-​a​r​z​t​-​d​e​m​o​n​s​t​r​a​n​t​e​n​-​k​l​i​n​i​k​-​a​f​r​i​k​a​-​9​0​2​0​0​3​9​0​.​h​tml, last time loo­ked up at 14.05.2022.

[33] See e. g.  Dani­el Hagen „Bodo Schiff­mann: Spen­den-Geld lan­det bei Eso­te­rik-Ver­ein – „Kraft­pa­ke­te“ für Flut­op­fer?“ at „mannheim24“.de from 23.02.2022 at 8:27 p.m.. Available under https://​www​.mann​heim24​.de/​r​e​g​i​o​n​/​s​e​k​t​e​-​b​o​d​o​-​s​c​h​i​f​f​m​a​n​n​-​f​l​u​t​o​p​f​e​r​-​a​h​r​t​a​l​-​s​p​e​n​d​e​n​g​e​l​d​-​t​e​l​e​g​r​a​m​-​q​u​e​r​d​e​n​k​e​r​-​9​1​3​5​9​5​3​1​.​h​tml, last time loo­ked up at 14.05.2022.

[34] „Meh­re­re Straf­an­zei­gen gegen „Quer­den­ken-Arzt“ Schiff­mann ein­ge­gan­gen“ at „swr​.de“ from 26.07.2021 at 3:29 p.m. Available under https://​www​.swr​.de/​s​w​r​a​k​t​u​e​l​l​/​b​a​d​e​n​-​w​u​e​r​t​t​e​m​b​e​r​g​/​m​a​n​n​h​e​i​m​/​s​t​r​a​f​a​n​z​e​i​g​e​n​-​g​e​g​e​n​-​s​c​h​i​f​f​m​a​n​n​-​w​e​g​e​n​-​s​p​e​n​d​e​n​s​a​m​m​l​u​n​g​-​1​0​0​.​h​tml, last time loo­ked up at 14.05.2022.

[35] „Zei­gen des „Z“-Symbols kann straf­bar sein“ at „tages​schau​.de“ from 28.03.2022 at 12:31 a.m.. Available under https://www.tagesschau.de/inland/z‑symbol-russland-verbot-101.html, last time loo­ked up at 14.05.2022.

[36] Diet­mar Neue­rer „Die Rechts­ver­dre­her“ at „han​dels​blatt​.com“ from 13.03.2014 at 10:26 a.m.. Avaiable under https://​www​.han​dels​blatt​.com/​p​o​l​i​t​i​k​/​i​n​t​e​r​n​a​t​i​o​n​a​l​/​v​o​e​l​k​e​r​r​e​c​h​t​-​u​n​d​-​d​i​e​-​k​r​i​m​-​k​r​i​s​e​-​d​i​e​-​r​e​c​h​t​s​v​e​r​d​r​e​h​e​r​/​9​6​0​5​1​2​2​.​h​tml, last time loo­ked up at 14.05.2022: „Schrö­der räum­te ein, dass er sel­ber das Völ­ker­recht gebro­chen habe, als es um die deut­sche Betei­li­gung am Koso­vo-Krieg gegen Ser­bi­en wäh­rend sei­ner Regie­rungs­zeit gegan­gen sei.“

[37] Chris­toph Burg­mer „Auf Lügen gebaut“ at „deutsch​land​funk​.de“ from 05.02.2013. Available under https://​www​.deutsch​land​funk​.de/​a​u​f​-​l​u​e​g​e​n​-​g​e​b​a​u​t​-​1​0​0​.​h​tml, last time loo­ked up at 14.05.2022: „Am 5. Febru­ar 2003 warf US-Außen­mi­nis­ter Colin Powell dem Irak den Besitz von Mas­sen­ver­nich­tungs­waf­fen vor und begrün­de­te damit die US-Inter­ven­ti­on im Irak. Spä­ter ent­schul­dig­te sich Powell für die in der Rede ver­brei­te­ten Lügen.“

[38] Prof. Dr. Wer­ner Mül­ler „Ver­fol­gung von Regie­rungs­kri­ti­kern – Fort­set­zung folgt?“ at „tkp​.at“ from 13.05.2022. Available under https://​tkp​.at/​2​0​2​2​/​0​5​/​1​3​/​v​e​r​f​o​l​g​u​n​g​-​v​o​n​-​r​e​g​i​e​r​u​n​g​s​k​r​i​t​i​k​e​r​n​-​f​o​r​t​s​e​t​z​u​n​g​-​f​o​l​gt/, last time loo­ked up at 14.05.2022.

[39] https://t.me/KlagePATEN_eu/2602

[40] „Tan­z­a­nia poll: John Mag­ufu­li of CCM defeats Edward Lowas­sa“ auf „bbc​.com“ from 29.10.2015. Available under https://​www​.bbc​.com/​n​e​w​s​/​w​o​r​l​d​-​a​f​r​i​c​a​-​3​4​6​6​9​468, last time loo­ked up at 12.05.2022.

[41] „Con­gra­tu­la­ti­ons – EALA tells H.E. Dr John Mag­ufu­li and Tan­z­a­ni­ans“ at „eac​.int“. Available under https://www.eac.int/press-releases/294–322-896-congratulations-eala-tells-h-e-dr-john-magufuli-and-tanzanians, last time loo­ked up at 14.05.2022.

[42] Simon Alli­son „Tanzania’s pre­si­dent tar­gets cor­rup­ti­on with sur­pri­se visits and sackings” at „the​guar​di​an​.com” from 08.12.2015 at 07:00 Uhr. Available under https://​www​.the​guar​di​an​.com/​g​l​o​b​a​l​-​d​e​v​e​l​o​p​m​e​n​t​/​2​0​1​5​/​d​e​c​/​0​8​/​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​-​n​e​w​-​p​r​e​s​i​d​e​n​t​-​j​o​h​n​-​m​a​g​u​f​u​l​i​-​t​a​r​g​e​t​s​-​c​o​r​r​u​p​t​i​o​n​-​s​u​r​p​r​i​s​e​-​v​i​s​i​t​s​-​s​a​c​k​i​ngs, last time loo­ked up at 12.05.2022.

[43] Simon Alli­son „Tanzania’s pre­si­dent tar­gets cor­rup­ti­on with sur­pri­se visits and sackings” at „the​guar​di​an​.com” from 08.12.2015 at 07:00 a. m. Available under https://​www​.the​guar​di​an​.com/​g​l​o​b​a​l​-​d​e​v​e​l​o​p​m​e​n​t​/​2​0​1​5​/​d​e​c​/​0​8​/​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​-​n​e​w​-​p​r​e​s​i​d​e​n​t​-​j​o​h​n​-​m​a​g​u​f​u​l​i​-​t​a​r​g​e​t​s​-​c​o​r​r​u​p​t​i​o​n​-​s​u​r​p​r​i​s​e​-​v​i​s​i​t​s​-​s​a​c​k​i​ngs, last time loo­ked up at 12.05.2022.

[44] Charles Kom­be „Tanzania’s Mag­ufu­li Wins Lands­li­de Reelec­tion“  at „voan​ews​.com“ from 01.11.2020 um 07:50 a. m.. Available under https://​www​.voan​ews​.com/​a​/​a​f​r​i​c​a​_​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​s​-​m​a​g​u​f​u​l​i​-​w​i​n​s​-​l​a​n​d​s​l​i​d​e​-​r​e​-​e​l​e​c​t​i​o​n​/​6​1​9​7​8​4​8​.​h​tml, last time loo­ked up at 12.05.2022.

[45] „Neue Prä­si­den­tin Tan­sa­ni­as ist Mit­glied im World Eco­no­mic Forum“ at „unser​-mit​tel​eu​ro​pa​.com“ from 19.03.2021. Available under https://​unser​-mit​tel​eu​ro​pa​.com/​n​e​u​e​-​p​r​a​e​s​i​d​e​n​t​i​n​-​t​a​n​s​a​n​i​a​s​-​i​s​t​-​m​i​t​g​l​i​e​d​-​i​m​-​w​o​r​l​d​-​e​c​o​n​o​m​i​c​-​f​o​r​um/, last time loo­ked up at 11.05.2022.

[46] „Tan­sa­nia: Gerüch­te über Todes­ur­sa­che des Prä­si­den­ten“ auf „ber​li​ner​-mis​si​ons​werk​.de“. Available under https://www.berliner-missionswerk.de/aktuelles/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=1268, last time loo­ked up at 11.05.2022.

[47] „Mei­nung: John Mag­ufu­li – ver­hasst und ver­ehrt“ at „dw​.com“ from 18.03.2021. Available under https://www.dw.com/de/meinung-john-magufuli-verhasst-und-verehrt/a‑56909380, last time loo­ked up at 11.05.2022.

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