Sata­nism Part 2: Ritu­al abu­se and human sacrifice

Quite topi­cal­ly, we should refer to an artic­le by the jour­na­lists Mar­kus Fied­ler and Dirk Pohl­mann. Part 64 of the series „Neu­es aus Wikii­hau­sen“ (News from Wiki­hau­sen) entit­led „Psi­ram, Wiki­pe­dia und die Ver­harm­lo­sung von Miss­brauch“ („Psi­ram, Wiki­pe­dia and the tri­via­li­sa­ti­on of abu­se“) which deals in par­ti­cu­lar with the topics of „ritu­al abu­se“ and „snuff vide­os“ (mur­der on came­ra) [1].

What is „ritu­al abu­se“? Peter H. Jamin defi­nes it as follows:

„Hier­bei han­delt es sich um schwe­ren sexu­el­len, phy­si­schen und emo­tio­na­len Miss­brauch, der mit Sym­bo­len oder Tätig­kei­ten ver­bun­den ist, die den Anschein von Reli­gio­si­tät, Magie oder über­na­tür­li­chen Bedeu­tun­gen haben. Die­se Tätig­kei­ten oder Ritua­le wer­den über län­ge­re Zeit wie­der­holt, um die Kin­der in Angst zu ver­set­zen, sie gewalt­sam ein­zu­schüch­tern und um sie zu ver­wir­ren.“[2]

Here is the translation:

„This is seve­re sexu­al, phy­si­cal and emo­tio­nal abu­se invol­ving sym­bols or acti­vi­ties that have the appearance of reli­gio­si­ty, magic or super­na­tu­ral mea­nings. The­se acti­vi­ties or ritu­als are repea­ted over time to frigh­ten, for­ci­b­ly inti­mi­da­te and con­fu­se the children.“

Facts at Psi­ram only cru­de con­spi­ra­cy theories

Fied­ler and Pohl­mann wri­te on Telegram:

„Auf der Inter­net-Pran­ger-Sei­te Psi­ram und in der Wiki­pe­dia fin­det man eine selt­sa­me Besonderheit.

Hier wer­den sexu­el­le Miss­brauchs­fäl­le als dubio­se Infor­ma­tio­nen abgetan.

Fil­me mit Mord­sze­nen wer­den als Schau­spie­le­rei oder Film­tricks dar­ge­stellt.“[3]

Here is the translation:

„On the inter­net pil­lo­ry site Psi­ram and in Wiki­pe­dia one finds a stran­ge peculiarity.

Here, sexu­al abu­se cases are dis­missed as dubio­us information.

Films with mur­der sce­nes are pre­sen­ted as acting or film tricks.“

Using the real case of Peter Scul­ly[4], the aut­hors impres­si­ve­ly demons­tra­te that the mur­der of child­ren on came­ra is not an urban legend or fic­tion, but a ter­ri­ble rea­li­ty[5]. Reports of tor­tu­re of child­ren on came­ra are also docu­men­ted[6], [7].

The „AP-News“ of 11.06.1988 reports on the ritu­al mur­der of a 16-year-old in Dou­glas­ville / USA. The report says among other things as follows:

“A 16-year-old boy accu­sed of taking part in a sata­nic human sacri­fice of a 15-year-old girl, was con­vic­ted of mur­der Fri­day and sen­ten­ced to life in prison.

[…]

Bel­cher, who has been sen­ten­ced to life in pri­son, McIn­ty­re and Mali­sa Ear­nest, 17, were char­ged in the slay­ing, accu­sed of strang­ling her and then per­forming a cru­de Sata­nic ritu­al over her body.“[8]

The Swiss out­drop Chan­tal Frei, in her book “SPEAKING OUT!: My Life under and Escape from Sata­nic Ritu­al Abu­se” descri­bes many cases of (often ritu­al) mur­der[9], inclu­ding tho­se of babies and pregnant women[10], but also can­ni­ba­lism[11] and snuff vide­os[12]. She spo­ke out loud in many inter­views for the free media[13]. Other such reports can be found e. g. in Mar­cel Pol­tes book on MKULTRA and ritu­al abu­se[14] and also here.

Actu­al num­ber of Sata­nist cri­mes unclear

It should the­r­e­fo­re be sta­ted at this point that the num­ber of ritu­al mur­ders and other cri­mes attri­bu­ted to Sata­nists may be exag­ge­ra­ted, but it would be disho­nest to cla­im that the­re are no such reports. The ext­ent to which the­se are the actions of men­tal­ly ill indi­vi­du­al per­pe­tra­tors or reli­gious­ly or other­wi­se moti­va­ted actions of orga­nis­ed groups would have to be inves­ti­ga­ted on a case-by-case basis. The pos­si­bi­li­ty of gene­ral­ly exclu­ding Sata­nist-moti­va­ted mur­ders[15] is unsci­en­ti­fic and must the­r­e­fo­re be left as a working hypo­the­sis, at least for indi­vi­du­al cases. In 1995, Intro­vi­gne quo­ted from his working trans­la­ti­on of „Set­te Regio­ni“ No. 5/1992[16]  „about fif­teen“ docu­men­ted mur­ders „com­mit­ted by Sata­nists as Sata­nists and in the name of Sata­nism“ sin­ce the 1950s[17]. Accor­ding to Fromm, at least the Ordo Templi Ori­en­tis and the Fra­ter­ni­tas Satur­ni have so far been „von Aus­stei­gern sel­ten oder gar nicht belas­tet wor­den[18] („rare­ly or not at all incri­mi­na­ted by such accu­sa­ti­ons from dro­pouts“) . In turn, the Grandt brot­hers report a writ­ten inter­view in which a Grand Mas­ter of the Fra­ter­ni­tas Satur­ni expres­sed hims­elf as follows:

„Ich bin für die Opfe­rung von Men­schen. Es soll­ten sowohl Tie­re als auch Men­schen geop­fert wer­den.“[19]

Here is the translation:

„I am in favour of the sacri­fice of human beings. Both ani­mals and humans should be sacrificed.“

Is the sacri­fice of lar­ge mas­ses of peo­p­le in the best pos­si­ble interest?

It is also a fact that the­re are, for exam­p­le, extre­mist expres­si­ons of opi­ni­on among mem­bers of the Church of Satan. Whe­ther the­se are offi­ci­al­ly only tole­ra­ted or also repre­sen­ted in indi­vi­du­al cases is not to be asses­sed here. The for­mer mem­ber Niko­las Schreck, for exam­p­le, made the fol­lo­wing comm­ents in a public interview:

„We would like to see most of the human race kil­led off, becau­se it is unwor­t­hy. It is unwor­t­hy of the gift of life. […] A blood­bath would be a cle­an­sing and a puri­fi­ca­ti­on of the pla­net that has been dir­ty and degra­ded for too long. […] We feel that the best way to chan­ge the world into a sata­nic are­na is by having strong indi­vi­du­als in dif­fe­rent are­as do their own indi­vi­du­al work.”[20]

Schreck later resi­gned from the Church of Satan.

„Nach ihrer Tren­nung von der CoS waren Niko­las und Zee­na Schreck meh­re­re Jah­re füh­ren­de Mit­glie­der des schwarz­ma­gi­schen Ordens Temp­le of Set. Mitt­ler­wei­le leben bei­de in Ber­lin und haben sich spi­ri­tu­ell dem tan­tri­schen Bud­dhis­mus zuge­wandt.“[21]

This is the translation:

„After their sepa­ra­ti­on from the CoS, Niko­las and Zee­na Schreck were lea­ding mem­bers of the black magic order Temp­le of Set for seve­ral years. In the mean­ti­me, both live in Ber­lin and have tur­ned spi­ri­tual­ly to Tan­tric Buddhism.“

Psy­cho­lo­gi­cal war­fa­re spe­cia­list Aqui­no defends himself

On Oprah Winfrey’s show, a for­mer mem­ber of the Church of Satan in Chi­ca­go repor­ted that he had been pre­sent at the ritu­al kil­ling of a per­son during a Wit­ches‘ Sab­bath on Wal­pur­gis Night. The kil­ling had taken place with seven dag­gers, in the shape of a cross.  In the end, he filed a com­plaint with the poli­ce. They found an altar and a lot of blood, but no altar. 

Dr. Micha­el Aqui­no (at that time still a mem­ber of the Church of Satan), who was also pre­sent in the show, cal­led the actu­al or alle­ged mem­ber a liar, becau­se he had repor­ted details about the Church of Satan that did not fit the struc­tures of this church.  For exam­p­le, the­re is no rank of aco­ly­te and no Wit­ches‘ Sab­bath[22]. In the pro­gram­me, Aqui­no was also con­fron­ted with the fact that during his time at the Natio­nal Defen­se Uni­ver­si­ty in Washing­ton D.C., alle­ga­ti­ons were made against him of child abu­se of a 3 ½‑year-old girl who iden­ti­fied him as the per­pe­tra­tor. Accor­ding to Aqui­no, the girl made the­se alle­ga­ti­ons only after she began the­ra­py[23], [24]. This is remi­nis­cent of alle­ga­ti­ons made by a US lob­by repor­ted by the Grandt brothers:

Die­se ein­fluß­rei­che Lob­by behaup­tet, dass The­ra­peu­ten mit sug­ges­ti­ven oder hyp­no­ti­schen Tech­ni­ken (in der soge­nann­ten Reco­ver­ed Memo­ry The­ra­py = „The­ra­pie zur Auf­de­ckung von Erin­ne­run­gen) Kin­dern ihre frü­hen sexu­el­len Miß­brauch­s­er­in­ne­run­gen „hein­ein­ma­ni­pu­lie­ren“.“[25]

Here is the translation:

„This influ­en­ti­al lob­by claims that the­ra­pists use sug­ges­ti­ve or hyp­no­tic tech­ni­ques (in what is cal­led Reco­ver­ed Memo­ry The­ra­py = „the­ra­py to unco­ver memo­ries) to „help“ child­ren into their ear­ly sexu­al abu­se memo­ries.“

Accor­ding to the Fal­se Memo­ry Syn­dro­me Foun­da­ti­on per­sons with a dis­so­cia­ti­ve iden­ti­ty dis­or­der are very rare and most repor­ted memo­ries (e. g. about ritu­al abu­se) are in fact fake memo­ries[26].

Grandt also cite other cri­tics who even ques­ti­on any form of ritu­al abu­se and con­clude the following:

Ofs­he und Wat­ters ver­su­chen also klar­zu­ma­chen, daß The­ra­peu­ten ihren Kli­en­ten fal­sche Erin­ne­run­gen sug­ge­rie­ren, die halt­los sind, weil es zum Bei­spiel kei­nen grund­le­gen­den Beweis für ritu­el­len Miß­brauch gebe. Ver­ges­sen, obwohl in ihrem Buch erwähnt, ist dabei bei­spiels­wei­se das Gesetz 87–1176 des Bun­des­staa­tes Illi­nois, das am 1. Janu­ar 1993 in Kraft getre­ten ist, das ritu­el­len Miss­brauch genau defi­niert und unter Stra­fe stellt. War­um also ein Gesetz, wenn doch alles nur ein­ge­re­de­te Fan­ta­sien irgend­wel­cher gestör­ter The­ra­peu­ten sind?“[27]

This is the translation:

„Ofs­he and Wat­ters are thus try­ing to make the point that the­ra­pists are sug­gest­ing fal­se memo­ries to their cli­ents that are base­l­ess becau­se, for exam­p­le, the­re is no basic evi­dence of ritu­al abu­se. For­got­ten, alt­hough men­tio­ned in her book, is, for exam­p­le, Illi­nois Law 87–1176, which came into force on 1 Janu­ary 1993, which pre­cis­e­ly defi­nes and cri­mi­na­li­ses ritu­al abu­se. So why have a law if it’s all just ima­gi­ned fan­ta­sies of some der­an­ged therapist?“

Grandt also refers to rese­arch that cle­ar­ly ques­ti­ons the inde­pen­dence, cre­di­bi­li­ty and qua­li­fi­ca­ti­ons of the aut­hors named abo­ve[28].  The often very one-sided report­ing (not only) of the Ger­man press on the topic[29]  should also make one won­der – as we can curr­ent­ly obser­ve in the report­ing on the topic of Coro­na. The Grandt brot­hers cite examp­les of this from the report­ing of „Spie­gel“ and „Psy­cho­lo­gie Heu­te“, which try to dis­credit the­ra­pists who belie­ve ritu­al abu­se to be real, for exam­p­le by using ques­tionable experts, sug­ges­ti­ve cap­ti­ons and in other ways. As a posi­ti­ve coun­ter-exam­p­le, the aut­hors cite a con­tri­bu­ti­on by ZDF (public TV chan­nel in Ger­ma­ny) from 1998[30].

Invol­vement in mul­ti­ple child abuse

The repor­ta­ge of „All-Ein-Sein“ (Being All-One) reports that in the late 1980s, the San Fran­cis­co Poli­ce Depart­ment accu­sed Aqui­no of being invol­ved in a Sata­nic child abu­se ring. In the pro­cess, an esti­ma­ted 86 vic­tims were said to have been infec­ted with sexu­al­ly trans­mit­ted dise­a­ses. A total of 22 lawsuits amoun­ting to US$66 mil­li­on had been filed against the army at the time. The­se suits against Aqui­no is said to have been drop­ped under pres­su­re from the army[31]. The Grandt brot­hers also report that the sus­pi­ci­on of child abu­se stuck to Aqui­no and men­ti­on in this con­text that the accu­sed had a „top secret“ sec­re­cy qua­li­fi­ca­ti­on at that time. Also, clo­sest mem­bers of the Temp­le of Set were also mem­bers of mili­ta­ry intel­li­gence[32]. One can see from Aquino’s appearance in the afo­re­men­tio­ned show that he was psy­cho­lo­gi­cal­ly very well trai­ned and knew how to silence critics.

Alle­ged dro­pout reports in par­ti­cu­lar should be taken with a grain of salt. While some may be quite cre­di­ble, the­re are others that appear to be apo­lo­ge­tic moti­ves to ser­ve typi­cal cli­chés. If one has stu­di­ed the sub­ject a litt­le, the descrip­ti­on in the book “The Satan-Sel­ler” (Ger­man: „Der Agent des Satans“) by Mike Warn­ke[33], for exam­p­le, does not seem very cre­di­ble[34]. Accor­ding to Schmidt, the dro­pout report „Lukas – vier Jah­re Höl­le und zurück“[35]  („Luke – four years in hell and back“) by Jür­gen Haus­kel­ler „mit sei­ner Plump­heit und der Unfä­hig­keit, Phan­ta­sien halb­wegs glaub­wür­dig erschei­nen zu las­sen[36]  („with its clum­siness and ina­bi­li­ty to make fan­ta­sies appear half­way cre­di­ble“) is also not to be taken serious­ly as a serious source[37].

Evi­dence of ani­mal and human sacrifice

On the other hand, Schmidt also names examp­les of Cali­for­ni­an cults that cre­di­bly testi­fied to ani­mal sacri­fices[38] or, in the case of the „Four Move­ment“, human sacri­fices[39], or descri­bes that during cer­tain ritu­als of the „Vel­le Tran­s­cent­den­tal Rese­arch Incor­po­ra­ted“ ani­mal blood was spil­led over a cou­ple enga­ged in sexu­al inter­cour­se[40]. Pol­te descir­bes how two boys were forced to com­mit sexu­al inter­cour­se with ano­ther boy who just had been kil­led. While they had to anal and oral inter­cour­se with the body the boys were all over cover­ed with the blood of the dead boy[41].  The Grandt brot­hers quo­te a qua­li­fied psy­cho­lo­gist and psy­cho­the­ra­pist by the name of Clau­dia Bom­mert, accor­ding to which one of her cli­ents had to wit­ness a human sacri­fice. The poli­ce were express­ly not infor­med of this[42].Mar­cel Pol­te also refers to an US-Ame­ri­can group cal­led “The Fin­ders” whe­re pho­tos of ani­mal sacri­fice have been found[43].

In 1989, the Enquete Com­mis­si­on of the Ger­man Bun­des­tag, in its prin­ted mat­ter 13/10950, was also able to report not only on ani­mal sacri­fices but also on other serious attacks by Sata­nist groups in Germany:

„Die schwar­ze Mes­se gehört zur ritu­el­len Pra­xis einer jeden sata­nis­ti­schen Grup­pe. Sie stellt die Umkeh­rung des christ­li­chen Ritus, genau­er: der römisch – katho­li­schen Mes­se, dar. Schwar­zes Tuch, Para­men­te und Insi­gni­en, Meß­bü­cher, Sym­bo­le wie das Pen­ta­gramm, das umge­dreh­te Kreuz und die Zahl 666 sowie schwar­ze Ker­zen und ein Altar sind die not­wen­di­gen Uten­si­li­en. Der Ablauf einer schwar­zen Mes­se kann aller­dings nicht typi­siert wer­den. Bru­ta­le und sadis­ti­sche Vari­an­ten wer­den nach Dar­stel­lung von Aus­stei­gern durch­aus prak­ti­ziert. Lei­ter von Bera­tungs­stel­len haben berich­tet, daß es dabei sowohl zu Tier­op­fern, zu Kör­per­ver­let­zun­gen (Schnit­te im Arm oder im Geni­tal­be­reich, Brü­chen), ritu­el­len Ver­ge­wal­ti­gun­gen (oft durch den gesam­ten männ­li­chen Teil der Grup­pe) sowie zu Fol­te­run­gen im Rah­men des Schmerz­trai­nings gekom­men ist. Schmer­zen ertra­gen zu kön­nen, wird im Kult als Beweis für den sata­nis­ti­schen Fort­schritt ange­se­hen. Aus­stei­ger­be­rich­ten zufol­ge, wird ein Sata­nist gefol­tert und fol­tert ande­re. Lie­be soll in Haß umge­wan­delt wer­den, und je bes­ser dies dem Adep­ten gelingt, des­to weni­ger hat er selbst mit Fol­ter­maß­nah­men zu rech­nen. Neben mani­pu­la­ti­ven Tech­ni­ken (von Auto­sug­ges­ti­on bis zur Trance­ar­beit) gehö­ren Alko­hol und Dro­gen zur Beein­fluß­ung der Invol­vier­ten selbst­ver­ständ­lich dazu, um bei Ritua­len bestimm­te Bewußt­seins­zu­stän­de zu errei­chen. Kom­men­tar einer Adep­tin: „Ohne breit zu sein (sie meint damit Hero­in) hältst du das alles gar nicht aus!“)“[44]

Here is the translation:

„The black mass is part of the ritu­al prac­ti­ce of every Sata­nist group. It repres­ents the inver­si­on of the Chris­ti­an rite, more pre­cis­e­ly: the Roman – Catho­lic mass. Black cloth, para­ments and insi­gnia, mis­sals, sym­bols such as the pen­ta­gram, the inver­ted cross and the num­ber 666, as well as black cand­les and an altar are the neces­sa­ry uten­sils. Howe­ver, the pro­ce­du­re of a black mass can­not be typi­fied. Bru­tal and sadi­stic vari­ants are cer­tain­ly prac­ti­sed, accor­ding to the accounts of dro­pouts. Lea­ders of coun­sel­ling cen­tres have repor­ted that ani­mal sacri­fices, bodi­ly inju­ries (cuts in the arm or geni­tal area, frac­tures), ritu­al rape (often by the enti­re male part of the group) as well as tor­tu­re in the con­text of pain trai­ning have occur­red. Being able to endu­re pain is seen in the cult as pro­of of Sata­nic pro­gress. Accor­ding to dro­pout reports, one Sata­nist is tor­tu­red and tor­tures others. Love is sup­po­sed to be trans­for­med into hate, and the bet­ter the adept suc­ceeds in this, the less he has to face tor­tu­re hims­elf. Apart from mani­pu­la­ti­ve tech­ni­ques (from auto­sug­ges­ti­on to trance work), alco­hol and drugs are natu­ral­ly used to influence tho­se invol­ved in order to achie­ve cer­tain sta­tes of con­scious­ness during ritu­als. Com­ment of an adept: „Wit­hout being high (she means hero­in) you can’t stand all this!“

Quick ter­mi­na­ti­on of inves­ti­ga­ti­ons no pro­of of lack of factuality

The aut­hors of the stu­dy also address the fact that the com­pe­tent sta­te cri­mi­nal inves­ti­ga­ti­on offices have

„kaum Erkennt­nis­se vor­lie­gen und daß Ermitt­lun­gen in ent­spre­chen­den Ver­dachts­fäl­len bis­lang kei­nen hin­rei­chen­den Tat­ver­dacht zu begrün­den ver­mö­gen [….].  Die­se weit­ge­hend wider­sprüch­li­che Daten­la­ge – ins­be­son­de­re das Feh­len ent­spre­chen­der Tat­sach­be­stän­de auf sei­ten der Ermitt­lungs­be­hör­den 214) Vgl. Lan­des­kri­mi­nal­amt Nord­rhein-West­fa­len: Son­der­aus­wer­tung „Okkultismus/Satanismus“ – Hin­ter­grün­de, Straf­ta­ten, Bewer­tung, April 1995, S. 22. 215) Vgl. Lan­des­kri­mi­nal­amt Nord­rhein-West­fa­len, a.a.O., S. 41. – darf aller­dings nicht dazu füh­ren, die vor­lie­gen­den jour­na­lis­ti­schen und the­ra­peu­ti­schen Berich­te als gegen­stands­los zu betrach­ten. Dies ver­bie­tet schon die Här­te der beschrie­be­nen Vor­fäl­le. Auf­grund der Dar­stel­lun­gen zu Dis­so­zia­ti­on und mul­ti­plen Per­sön­lich­keits­stö­run­gen ist es plau­si­bel, war­um sich Ermitt­lun­gen hier als beson­ders schwie­rig dar­stel­len und es schnell zur Ein­stel­lung von Ermitt­lun­gen kom­men kann.“[45]

Here is the translation:

„hard­ly any fin­dings are available and that inves­ti­ga­ti­ons in cor­re­spon­ding sus­pi­cious cases have so far not been able to estab­lish suf­fi­ci­ent sus­pi­ci­on [.…].  This lar­ge­ly con­tra­dic­to­ry data situa­ti­on – in par­ti­cu­lar the lack of cor­re­spon­ding facts on the part of the inves­ti­ga­ting aut­ho­ri­ties 214) Cf. Sta­te Cri­mi­nal Poli­ce Office of North Rhi­ne-West­pha­lia: Spe­cial Eva­lua­ti­on „Occultism/Satanism“ – Back­grounds, Cri­mes, Eva­lua­ti­on, April 1995, p. 22. 215) Cf. Sta­te Cri­mi­nal Poli­ce Office of North Rhi­ne-West­pha­lia, loc. cit. p. 41 – must not, howe­ver, lead to the pre­sent jour­na­li­stic and the­ra­peu­tic reports being regard­ed as irrele­vant. This is pro­hi­bi­ted by the seve­ri­ty of the inci­dents descri­bed. Based on the accounts of dis­so­cia­ti­on and mul­ti­ple per­so­na­li­ty dis­or­ders, it is plau­si­ble why inves­ti­ga­ti­ons are par­ti­cu­lar­ly dif­fi­cult in this case and why inves­ti­ga­ti­ons can quick­ly be discontinued.“

Fromm ela­bo­ra­tes on what con­sti­tu­tes a mul­ti­ple per­so­na­li­ty (cor­rect­ly: per­son with dis­so­cia­ti­ve iden­ti­ty dis­or­der):

„Im Gegen­satz zum Krank­heits­bild der Schi­zo­phre­nie sind „mul­ti­ple Per­sön­lich­kei­ten jedoch fähig, ihre Wahr­neh­mung zu dif­fe­ren­zie­ren und einen Rea­li­täts­ab­gleich durch­zu­füh­ren. Inso­fern haben Aus­sa­gen von „mul­ti­plen Per­sön­lich­kei­ten“ oft eine hohe Plau­si­bi­li­tät, aller­dings nicht sel­ten im Kon­text einer gestör­ten Raum-Zeit-Wahr­neh­mung.“[46]

Here is the translation:

„In con­trast to the cli­ni­cal pic­tu­re of schi­zo­phre­nia, howe­ver, „mul­ti­ple per­so­na­li­ties are capa­ble of dif­fe­ren­tia­ting their per­cep­ti­on and car­ry­ing out a rea­li­ty com­pa­ri­son. In this respect, state­ments by „mul­ti­ple per­so­na­li­ties“ often have a high plau­si­bi­li­ty, but not infre­quent­ly in the con­text of a dis­tur­bed space-time perception.“

This cir­cum­s­tance leads to the fact that many state­ments of vic­tims of ritu­al abu­se are not direct­ly veri­fia­ble, becau­se accu­ra­te and inac­cu­ra­te memo­ries can be mixed with each other and a tem­po­ral and loca­li­sa­ti­on of expe­ri­en­ces is often not pos­si­ble or only pos­si­ble with dif­fi­cul­ties wit­hout com­pre­hen­si­ve the­ra­py[47].

Writ­ten sources alo­ne are not sufficient

It should be noted at this point that stu­dy­ing publicly available wri­tin­gs and web­sites of the indi­vi­du­al Sata­nist groups alo­ne can help to get a first impres­si­on, but can­not replace insi­der know­ledge. Against this back­ground, dro­pout and the­ra­pist reports play an important role in illu­mi­na­ting the „dark side of Sata­nism“. It would be absurd if Sata­nists were to publicly air points rele­vant to cri­mi­nal law in indi­vi­du­al cases. Due to the enorm­ous num­ber of small and very small Sata­nist churches, orders, cults, grot­tos, pylons, etc., gene­ral state­ments about „Sata­nism“ are not pos­si­ble. The­r­e­fo­re, if spe­ci­fic orga­ni­sa­ti­ons or mem­bers beco­me con­spi­cuous under cri­mi­nal law, it can­not be dedu­ced from this that this must app­ly to all orga­ni­sa­ti­ons and all their members.

Even within the Chris­ti­an churches the­re are cri­mi­nals of all kinds, wher­eby pae­do­phi­les cer­tain­ly attract the grea­test publi­ci­ty. Examp­les include the then 75-year-old priest Ber­nard Prey­nat, who was sen­ten­ced to five years in pri­son in 2020[48], or the case of the priest Bene­dikt Trei­mer, who was sen­ten­ced to three years in pri­son in 2007 – also for abu­se[49].

In her book, howe­ver, Chan­tal Frei, a dro­pout of sata­nic ritu­al abu­se, descri­bes – among others – sata­nic ritu­als in the Sagra­da Fami­lia[50]  in Bar­ce­lo­na and in West­mins­ter Abbey[51] in Eng­land, among others, in which the hig­hest social cir­cles are invol­ved. In public inter­views, she names the peo­p­le anony­mi­sed in the book, inclu­ding the late Ger­man show­mas­ter Peter Alex­an­der, the recent­ly decea­sed Queen of Eng­land, the three tenors (José Care­ras, Lucia­no Paver­ot­ti and Pla­ci­do Dom­in­go), the for­mer Eng­lish prime minis­ter Tony Blair, the US actor Tom Crui­se and the French-born Gérard Depar­dieu[52].

In par­ti­cu­lar, Chan­tal descri­bes how sata­nic ritu­als were com­mit­ted under a Chris­ti­an gui­se[53]. Accor­din­gly, Chris­ti­an tea­chings are deli­bera­te­ly tur­ned upsi­de down, Bible ver­ses are taken out of con­text and reinter­pre­ted sata­ni­cal­ly. Using con­cre­te examp­les, Chan­tal descri­bes how Bible ver­ses were misu­s­ed as jus­ti­fi­ca­ti­on for ritu­al abu­se, bea­tings and other acts. The aut­hor also explains how many Chris­ti­an com­mu­ni­ties have been infil­tra­ted by Sata­nists, who thus only pre­tend to lead a Chris­ti­an life. Just becau­se someone can reci­te Bible ver­ses flaw­less­ly does not make them a real Chris­ti­an[54].

This artic­le first appeared on Decem­ber 19th 2021 in Ger­man on  https://critical-news.de/satanismus-teil-2-ritueller-missbrauch-und-menschenopfer// and has been slight­ly updated for the Eng­lish ver­si­on. All refe­ren­ces to Chan­tal Frei and Mar­cel Pol­te appear here for the first time.


[1] See e. g. Ulla Fröh­ling „Vater unser in der Höl­le. Durch Inzest und den Miss­brauch in einer sata­nis­ti­schen Sek­te zer­brach Ange­las See­le.“ Ber­gisch Glad­bach (Bas­tei Lüb­be), 6 th edi­ti­on, 2009 (Bas­tei Lüb­be Taschen­buch Band 61 625), pp. 271–272. On seve­re abu­se in front of run­ning came­ras of small child­ren with hig­hest risk of death see Gui­do und Micha­el Grandt „Sata­nis­mus. Die unter­schätz­te Gefahr.“ Düs­sel­dorf (Pat­mos), 2nd edi­ti­on, 2000, pp. 150–151

[2] Peter H. Jamin „Sexop­fer Kind. Die Hin­ter­grün­de des Falls Dut­roux und die Machen­schaf­ten der Por­no-Mafia.“ Ber­gisch Glad­bach (Bas­tei Lüb­be), 1997 (Bas­tei-Lüb­be Taschen­buch Band 60 446), pp. 311–312

[3] https://t.me/geschichten_aus_wikihausen/300, last acces­sed on 06.10.2021

[4] See e. g.  Dr. Lac­ter „Child Rape and Tor­tu­re Mate­ri­als on the Dark Web: Peter Scul­ly and Bey­ond” on „end​ri​tu​al​abu​se​.org” from 29.09.2018. Available at https://​end​ri​tu​al​abu​se​.org/​c​h​i​l​d​-​r​a​p​e​-​t​o​r​t​u​r​e​-​m​a​t​e​r​i​a​l​s​-​d​a​r​k​-​w​eb/, last acces­sed on 09.10.2021.

[5] Sie­he about Snuff-Vide­os also Dia­na Napo­lis „Sata­nism and Ritu­al Abu­se Archi­ve“  at Dr. Lac­ter on „end​ri​tu​al​abu​se​.org“ from 01.01.2007. Available at https://​end​ri​tu​al​abu​se​.org/​s​a​t​a​n​i​s​m​-​a​n​d​-​r​i​t​u​a​l​-​a​b​u​s​e​-​a​r​c​h​i​ve/, last acces­sed on 09.10.2021

[6] See e. g.  Ulla Fröh­ling „Vater unser in der Höl­le. Durch Inzest und den Miss­brauch in einer sata­nis­ti­schen Sek­te zer­brach Ange­las See­le.“ Ber­gisch Glad­bach (Bas­tei Lüb­be), 6th edi­ti­on, 2009 (Bas­tei Lüb­be Taschen­buch Band 61 625), p. 368

[7] See e. g. Pol­te, Mar­cel „Dunk­le Neue Welt­ord­nung. Teil 1. MKULTRA Mind Con­trol, ritu­el­le Gewalt und eine glo­ba­le Agen­da.“ Bad Hom­burg (Kind­le Direct Publi­shing), 2019, p. 45–47.

[8] „Six­teen-Year-Old Sen­ten­ced To Life In Pri­son For Ritu­al Mur­der “at „apnews​.com“ from 11.06.1988. Available at https://​apnews​.com/​a​r​t​i​c​l​e​/​a​f​0​5​0​4​e​a​0​4​8​7​d​7​5​9​c​6​f​7​a​8​a​5​2​b​0​7​a​35d, last acces­sed on 27.10.2021

[9] Chan­tal Frei “Ich rede! Mein Leben und Aus­stieg aus sata­nisch ritu­el­ler Gewalt“. Gre­ven (Kind­le Direct Publi­shing), 2021, pp. 64–66, 68, 76, 93–94

[10] Chan­tal Frei “Ich rede! Mein Leben und Aus­stieg aus sata­nisch ritu­el­ler Gewalt“. Gre­ven (Kind­le Direct Publi­shing), 2021, pp. 82–83

[11] Chan­tal Frei “Ich rede! Mein Leben und Aus­stieg aus sata­nisch ritu­el­ler Gewalt“. Gre­ven (Kind­le Direct Publi­shing), 2021, pp. 39–40, 82–83

[12] Chan­tal Frei “Ich rede! Mein Leben und Aus­stieg aus sata­nisch ritu­el­ler Gewalt“. Gre­ven (Kind­le Direct Publi­shing), 2021, p. 53

[13] See e. g. Jo Con­rad “Pro­mi­nen­te Täter“ on “you​tube​.com” from 03.05.2022. Available at https://​www​.you​tube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​n​1​7​1​6​2​6​2​p​B​w​&​t​=​2​7​00s, last acces­sed on 18.09.2022

[14] See e. g. Pol­te, Mar­cel „Dunk­le Neue Welt­ord­nung. Teil 1. MKULTRA Mind Con­trol, ritu­el­le Gewalt und eine glo­ba­le Agen­da.“ Bad Hom­burg (Kind­le Direct Publi­shing), 2019, pp 48–49

[15] Cf. Gui­do und Micha­el Grandt „Sata­nis­mus. Die unter­schätz­te Gefahr.“ Düs­sel­dorf (Pat­mos), 2nd edi­ti­on, 2000, pp. 130–131

[16] Mas­si­mo Intro­vi­gne “Auf den Spu­ren des Sata­nis­mus“ in Mas­si­mo Intro­vi­gne und Eck­hard Türk „Sata­nis­mus. Zwi­schen Sen­sa­ti­on und Wirk­lich­keit.“ Frei­burg im Breis­gau (Her­der), 1995, p. 212

[17] Mas­si­mo Intro­vi­gne “Auf den Spu­ren des Sata­nis­mus“ in Mas­si­mo Intro­vi­gne und Eck­hard Türk „Sata­nis­mus. Zwi­schen Sen­sa­ti­on und Wirk­lich­keit.“ Frei­burg im Breis­gau (Her­der), 1995, p. 210

[18] Rai­ner Fromm „Sata­nis­mus in Deutsch­land. Zwi­schen Kult und Gewalt.“ Mün­chen (Olz­og), 2003, p. 158

[19] Gui­do und Micha­el Grandt „Schwarz­buch Sata­nis­mus“. Mün­chen (Knaur), 1996, p. 118

[20] All-Ein-Sein “Die okkul­te Éli­te – Church of Satan, Temp­le of Set und the Fin­ders Teil 7” on  you​tube​.de from 09.11.2017. Available at https://​www​.you​tube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​5​I​S​-​o​Q​D​o​IKE, min. 14:58 bis 15:39 last acces­sed on 21.11.2021

[21] „Black online“ at black​ma​ga​zin​.com. Available at https://​www​.black​ma​ga​zin​.com/​?​p​=​2​1​398, last acces­sed on 21.11.2011

[22] All-Ein-Sein “Die okkul­te Éli­te – Church of Satan, Temp­le of Set und the Fin­ders Teil 7” on you​tube​.de from 09.11.2017. Available at https://​www​.you​tube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​5​I​S​-​o​Q​D​o​IKE, min. 44:24 bis 50:07 last acces­sed on 21.11.2021

[23] All-Ein-Sein “Die okkul­te Éli­te – Church of Satan, Temp­le of Set und the Fin­ders Teil 7” on you​tube​.de from 09.11.2017. Available at https://​www​.you​tube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​5​I​S​-​o​Q​D​o​IKE, min. 52:54 bis 54:02 last acces­sed on 21.11.2021

[24] On the accu­sa­ti­ons against Aqui­no, cf. also Mas­si­mo Intro­vi­gne “Auf den Spu­ren des Sata­nis­mus“ in Mas­si­mo Intro­vi­gne und Eck­hard Türk „Sata­nis­mus. Zwi­schen Sen­sa­ti­on und Wirk­lich­keit.“ Frei­burg im Breis­gau (Her­der), 1995, p. 182

[25] Gui­do und Micha­el Grandt „Sata­nis­mus. Die unter­schätz­te Gefahr.“ Düs­sel­dorf (Pat­mos), 2nd edi­ti­on, 2000, p. 201

[26] Cf. Wen­dy Hoff­mann “Die ver­sklav­te Köni­gin. Erin­ne­run­gen an Strom­fol­ter und Mind-Con­trol“. Krö­ning (Asan­ger), 2021, p.253

[27] Gui­do und Micha­el Grandt „Sata­nis­mus. Die unter­schätz­te Gefahr.“ Düs­sel­dorf (Pat­mos), 2nd, 2000, p. 206

[28] Gui­do und Micha­el Grandt “Sata­nis­mus. Die unter­schätz­te Gefahr.“ Düs­sel­dorf (Pat­mos), 2nd, 2000, p. 206–207

[29] Cf. e. g. .Dani­el Krä­hen­bühl and Noah Knü­sel “NACH SRF-DOK: Psych­ia­tri­sche Kli­nik stellt Ober­arzt nach Sata­nis­ten-Aus­sa­ge frei“ on „20min​.ch“ from 17.12.2021 at 04:45 Uhr. Available at https://​www​.20min​.ch/​s​t​o​r​y​/​p​s​y​c​h​i​a​t​r​i​s​c​h​e​-​k​l​i​n​i​k​-​s​t​e​l​l​t​-​o​b​e​r​a​r​z​t​-​n​a​c​h​-​s​a​t​a​n​i​s​t​e​n​-​a​u​s​s​a​g​e​-​f​r​e​i​-​2​9​9​6​0​2​7​0​6​1​9​9​?​f​b​c​l​i​d​=​I​w​A​R​3​W​W​I​1​d​J​V​2​k​d​p​y​J​I​D​s​P​m​9​T​g​Z​Y​a​v​6​d​k​Q​l​8​2​z​m​Q​E​n​_​P​U​B​7​e​8​s​f​G​k​6​S​n​e​2​YVs, last acces­sed on 19.12.2021: „Sata­nis­ten, die Kin­der fol­tern, sexu­ell miss­brau­chen, ihr Blut trin­ken und sie sogar essen? Wie eine SRF-Doku zeigt, sind ein Psych­ia­ter, Poli­ti­ker, Leh­re­rin­nen und Leh­rer und sogar ein Poli­zist davon über­zeugt, dass es in der Schweiz Zir­kel gibt, die im Unter­grund ope­rie­ren und sata­nis­ti­sche Ritua­le orga­ni­sie­ren, bei wel­chen Kin­der miss­han­delt und getö­tet werden.

Hin­ter die­sen kru­den Aus­sa­gen steht der Ver­ein Cara (Care About Ritu­al Abu­se), der zum The­ma Wei­ter­bil­dun­gen anbie­tet, Fil­me pro­du­ziert und Bücher ver­treibt.“ Here is the trans­la­ti­on: „Sata­nists who tor­tu­re, sexu­al­ly abu­se child­ren, drink their blood and even eat them? As an SRF docu­men­ta­ry shows, a psych­ia­trist, poli­ti­ci­ans, tea­chers and even a poli­ce­man are con­vin­ced that the­re are cir­cles in Switz­er­land that ope­ra­te under­ground and orga­ni­se sata­nic ritu­als in which child­ren are abu­sed and killed.

Behind the­se cru­de state­ments is the asso­cia­ti­on Cara (Care About Ritu­al Abu­se), which offers fur­ther edu­ca­ti­on on the sub­ject, pro­du­ces films and sells books.“ Actual­ly the­re is the report of a dro­pout from Switz­er­land, first published in Ger­man and sin­ce July 2022 also in Eng­lish: Chan­tal Frei “SPEAKING OUT!: My Life under and Escape from Sata­nic Ritu­al Abuse”.

[30] See e. g. Gui­do und Micha­el Grandt “Sata­nis­mus. Die unter­schätz­te Gefahr.“ Düs­sel­dorf (Pat­mos), 2nd edi­ti­on, 2000, pp. 207–214

[31] All-Ein-Sein “Die okkul­te Éli­te – Church of Satan, Temp­le of Set und the Fin­ders Teil 7” on you​tube​.de from 09.11.2017. Available at https://​www​.you​tube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​5​I​S​-​o​Q​D​o​IKE, min. 56:05 bis 56:33 last acces­sed on 21.11.2021

[32] Gui­do und Micha­el Grandt “Sata­nis­mus. Die unter­schätz­te Gefahr.“ Düs­sel­dorf (Pat­mos), 2nd edi­ti­on, 2000, pp. 188–189

[33] Mike Warn­ke mit Dave Bal­si­ger and Les Jones Der Agent des Satans.“ Erz­hau­sen (Leuch­ter-Ver­lag EG), 4th edi­ti­on, 1992

[34] See, for exam­p­le, refe­ren­ces to incon­sis­ten­ci­es with https://​www​.good​reads​.com/​b​o​o​k​/​s​h​o​w​/​3​6​3​5​1​0​.​T​h​e​_​S​a​t​a​n​_​S​e​l​ler, last acces­sed on 13.10.2021. For exam­p­le, Chris Pad­gett wro­te on 05.01.2011: “Well at the time I real­ly lik­ed this book, becau­se like most peo­p­le who read it they thought the sto­ry was in fact an authen­tic bio­gra­phy. We had a few of his tapes, and I can remem­ber even going to see him live once when I was a kid. I loved his come­dy and approach to minis­try! It was in the late eight­ies I think, when his minis­try was cal­led into ques­ti­on. It was repor­ted that he was never a sata­nic priest, nor had he been in the mili­ta­ry, etc. It was a mess! Hard to take someone serious­ly who based his who­le minis­try on a lie. (less)“. Ano­ther rea­der, Matt Fried­mann, wro­te on 25.08.2016: As has been well-known for over twen­ty years, this „auto­bio­gra­phi­cal“ account was lar­ge­ly fabri­ca­ted. In the mid-1990s, I was han­ded a copy of the maga­zi­ne con­tai­ning a deep­ly dama­ging account, not only of this book, but of Warnke’s enti­re tes­tim­o­ny. John Trott and Mike Her­ten­stein published a tho­rough expo­se in the pages of Cor­ner­stone maga­zi­ne, vol. 21, issue 98, in July 1992. A more detail­ed ver­si­on of their rese­arch on Warn­ke is to be found in their sub­se­quent book, Sel­ling Satan. Both the artic­le and the book may be found with a goog­le search.”

[35] Jür­gen Haus­kel­ler in Lukas „Vier Jah­re Höl­le und zurück.“ Ber­gisch Glad­bach (Bas­tei Lüb­be), 1995

[36] Joa­chim Schmidt „Sata­nis­mus. Mythos und Wirk­lich­keit.“ Ber­lin (Second Sight Books), 1st New edi­ti­on, 2018, p. 234.

[37] Other sources should also be trea­ted with cau­ti­on. See e.g. Gui­do und Micha­el Grandt „Sata­nis­mus. Die unter­schätz­te Gefahr.“ Düs­sel­dorf (Pat­mos), 2nd edi­ton, 2000, pp. 36, 39. If, for exam­p­le, the Grandt brot­hers inter­pret the Gal­lic god Cer­nun­nos in their book as the embo­di­ment of dark­ness in the cos­mic world becau­se of the ant­lers gro­wing out of his fore­head, the focus here should rather be on the desi­re for such an inter­pre­ta­ti­on, but not on the exis­ting source situa­ti­on, which has left pre­cis­e­ly no writ­ten sources to sup­port such an inter­pre­ta­ti­on. At least as far as the inter­pre­ta­ti­on of mytho­lo­gi­cal „cor­re­spon­den­ces“ of Satan and Luci­fer is con­cer­ned, one should rather rely on the mono­graph by Joa­chim Schmidt. This does not mean, howe­ver, that the Grandt brot­hers are gene­ral­ly unusable as a source, but one should also approach other inter­pre­ta­ti­ons with due caution.

[38] Joa­chim Schmidt Sata­nis­mus. Mythos und Wirk­lich­keit.“ Ber­lin (Second Sight Books), 1st New edi­ti­on, 2018, pp. 136, 174

[39] Joa­chim Schmidt Sata­nis­mus. Mythos und Wirk­lich­keit.“ Ber­lin (Second Sight Books), 1st New edi­ti­on, 2018, p. 136. Schmidt does not pro­vi­de a source to pro­ve his claim.

[40] Joa­chim Schmidt Sata­nis­mus. Mythos und Wirk­lich­keit.“ Ber­lin (Second Sight Books), 1. Neu­auf­la­ge, 2018, S. 135

[41] Pol­te, Mar­cel Dunk­le Neue Welt­ord­nung. Teil 1. MKULTRA Mind Con­trol, ritu­el­le Gewalt und eine glo­ba­le Agen­da.“ Bad Hom­burg (Kind­le Direct Publi­shing), 2019, S. 55

[42] See also Gui­do und Micha­el Grandt „Sata­nis­mus. Die unter­schätz­te Gefahr.“ Düs­sel­dorf (Pat­mos), 2nd edi­ti­on, 2000, pp. 114, 123

[43] Pol­te, Mar­cel „Dunk­le Neue Welt­ord­nung. Teil 1. MKULTRA Mind Con­trol, ritu­el­le Gewalt und eine glo­ba­le Agen­da.“ Bad Hom­burg (Kind­le Direct Publi­shing), 2019, p. 38–42

[44] Deut­scher Bun­des­tag, 13. Wahl­pe­ri­ode „End­be­richt der Enquete-Kom­mis­si­on „Soge­nann­te Sek­ten und Psy­cho­grup­pen““, Druck­sa­che 13/10950 from 09.06.1998, S. 46. Available at https://​dser​ver​.bun​des​tag​.de/​b​t​d​/​1​3​/​1​0​9​/​1​3​1​0​9​5​0​.​pdf, last acces­sed on 22.11.2021. About the use of drugs and hyp­no­sis invol­ved in Sata­nic ritu­al abu­se also see Mar­cel Pol­te “Dunk­le Neue Welt­ord­nung. Teil 1. MKULTRA Mind Con­trol, ritu­el­le Gewalt und eine glo­ba­le Agen­da“ Bad Hom­burg (Kind­le Direct Publi­shing), 2019, pp. 10, 18

[45] Deut­scher Bun­des­tag, 13. Wahl­pe­ri­ode End­be­richt der Enquete-Kom­mis­si­on „Soge­nann­te Sek­ten und Psy­cho­grup­pen““, Druck­sa­che 13/10950 from 09.06.1998, S. 97. Available at https://​dser​ver​.bun​des​tag​.de/​b​t​d​/​1​3​/​1​0​9​/​1​3​1​0​9​5​0​.​pdf, last acces­sed on 22.11.2021

[46] Rai­ner Fromm Sata­nis­mus in Deutsch­land. Zwi­schen Kult und Gewalt.“ Mün­chen (Olz­og), 2003, p. 198

[47] Cf. Rai­ner Fromm Sata­nis­mus in Deutsch­land. Zwi­schen Kult und Gewalt.“ Mün­chen (Olz­og), 2003, pp. 198–199

[48] epd evan​ge​lisch​.de“ from 16.03.2020. Available at https://www.evangelisch.de/inhalte/167256/16–03-2020/frankreich-paedophiler-priester-zu-fuenf-jahren-haft-verurteilt, last acces­sed on 23.11.2021

[49] Pädo­phi­ler Pries­ter aus Rie­kofen zu drei Jah­ren Haft ver­ur­teilt“ at „dasers​te​.ndr​.de“. Available at https://​dasers​te​.ndr​.de/​p​a​n​o​r​a​m​a​/​a​k​t​u​e​l​l​/​P​a​e​d​o​p​h​i​l​e​r​-​P​r​i​e​s​t​e​r​-​a​u​s​-​R​i​e​k​o​f​e​n​-​z​u​-​d​r​e​i​-​J​a​h​r​e​n​-​H​a​f​t​-​v​e​r​u​r​t​e​i​l​t​,​p​r​i​e​s​t​e​r​2​.​h​tml, last acces­sed on 23.11.2021

[50] Manu­el Pol­te „Vor­wort von Dr. Mar­cel Pol­te“ in Chan­tal Frei „Ich rede! Mein Leben und Aus­stieg aus sata­nisch ritu­el­ler Gewalt:“ Gre­ven (Kind­le Direct Publi­shing), 2021, p. 7. See also Chan­tal Frei „Ich rede! Mein Leben und Aus­stieg aus sata­nisch ritu­el­ler Gewalt:“ Gre­ven (Kind­le Direct Publi­shing), 2021, p. 85

[51] Chan­tal Frei „Ich rede! Mein Leben und Aus­stieg aus sata­nisch ritu­el­ler Gewalt:“ Gre­ven (Kind­le Direct Publi­shing), 2021, p. 121–122

[52] See Jo Con­rad Pro­mi­nen­te Täter“ on “you​tube​.com” from 03.05.2022. Available at https://​www​.you​tube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​n​1​7​1​6​2​6​2​p​B​w​&​t​=​2​7​00s, last acces­sed on 18.09.2022.

[53] Manu­el Pol­te „Vor­wort von Dr. Mar­cel Pol­te“ in Chan­tal Frei „Ich rede! Mein Leben und Aus­stieg aus sata­nisch ritu­el­ler Gewalt:“ Gre­ven (Kind­le Direct Publi­shing), 2021, p. 7. See also Chan­tal Frei „Ich rede! Mein Leben und Aus­stieg aus sata­nisch ritu­el­ler Gewalt:“ Gre­ven (Kind­le Direct Publi­shing), 2021, pp. 26–27, 85

[54] See espe­ci­al­ly Chan­tal Frei „Ich rede! Mein Leben und Aus­stieg aus sata­nisch ritu­el­ler Gewalt:“ Gre­ven (Kind­le Direct Publi­shing), 2021, p. 154–157.

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